27 SES 11 C, Values, Norms and Gender Issues
In Norway the majority of children attend pre-school at an early age. The pre-school has become not just an important part of early childhood socialisation but also an important actor in gender socialisations. This aspect is reflecting in the Norwegian pre-school curriculum (2011). According to the curriculum teachers must to strive to promote gender equality in their educational practice. The principle of gender equality is essential for the activities in pre-school. The curriculum points out that girls and boys must have equal opportunities to be seen and heard and the teachers have a main task to encourage all children to participate in all kinds of activities. The curriculum emphasis the responsibility teachers have in reflecting their own attitudes and expectations towards girls and boys.
For many years there has been an increasing interest in gender differences in pre-schools and schools. Previous research has shown that expectations and treatment of girls and boys from teachers and others are important for how gender is constructed (Jonsdottir, 2007). In general, boys achieve lower than girls in school (Hammer and Hyggen, 2013, The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training, 2013). A higher proportion of girls’ complete upper secondary education compared with boys (Statistics Norway 2013). Girls and boys are often treated differently on the basis of gender-based expectations, such as girls being early developers, more considerate, less aggressive and more linguistically advanced (Eidevald, 2009; Månsson, 2000). Based on different gender expectations girls and boys learn to position themselves differently, because teachers in pre-school and school consider girls and boys differently. The aim of our study is to shed light on gender differences in difference and daily life activities activities among toddlers. The research question is:
What differences in coping with daily life activities activities can be identified between girls and boys in the pre-school?
Several longitudinal studies in language, motivation, mathematics and self-regulation show disparities in favour of girls (Friederici et al., 2008; Silverman, 2003; Zambrana, Ystrom, & Pons, 2012). New-born girls show better eye contact, manage to discriminate and show greater attention to verbal stimuli (Friederici et al., 2008; Leeb & Rejskind, 2004).In use of self-regulation learning strategies girls are more likely to use such strategies than boys. Girls also report higher use than boys of goal-setting, planning, monitoring etc.(Meece & Painter, 2008). Other research studies show the same tendency. Girls are often seen as more communicative and verbal, more intellectual and competent than boys (Jonsdottir, 2007). Boys are more often describe as robust, honest and lively (Jonsdottir, 2007; Warrington & Younger, 2006). Girls tend to build stronger relationship with teachers, attain higher grades and progress better than boys (Matthews, Morrison, & Ponitz, 2009). In contrast, boys are more likely to dropping out of school. The percentage of pupils that completes upper secondary education within the five-year period is for girls 64 % and for boys 75 %. A higher proportion of girls’ complete upper secondary education compared with boys. Boys are more likely than girls to referred special education (White Paper no. Nr.24 (2012-2013)).
Bagnato, S. J. (2007). Authentic assessment for early childhood intervention: best practices. New York: Guilford Press. Eidevald, C. (2009). Det finns inga tjejbestämmare: att förstå kön som position i förskolans vardagsrutiner och lek. Jönköping: Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation. Friederici, A. D., Pannekamp, A., Partsch, C.-J., Ulmen, U., Oehler, K., Schmutzler, R., & Hesse, V. (2008). Sex hormone testosterone affects language organization in the infant brain. Neuroreport, 19(3), 283-286. Hammer, T. Hyggen, C.(red) Ung voksen og utenfor : mestring og marginalitet på vei til voksenliv Oslo : Gyldendal akademisk Jonsdottir, F. (2007). Barns kamratrelationer i förskolan: samhörighet tillhörighet vänskap utanförskap (Vol. 35). Malmö: Området för lärarutbildning, Malmö högskola. Kunnskapsdepartementet http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/KD/Vedlegg/Barnehager/engelsk/Framework_Plan_for_the_Content_and_Tasks_of_Kindergartens_2011.pdf Leeb, R. T., & Rejskind, G. (2004). Here’s Looking at You, Kid! A Longitudinal Study of Perceived Gender Differences in Mutual Gaze Behavior in Young Infants. Sex Roles(50), 1-5. Matthews, J. S., Morrison, F. J., & Ponitz, C. C. (2009). Early Gender Differences in Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement. Jounal of Educatinal Psychology, 101(3), 689-704. Meece, J. L., & Painter, J. (2008). Gender, Self-Regulation, and Motivation. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning. Theory, Research, and Applications (pp. 339-369). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Månsson, A. (2000). Möten som formar: interaktionsmönster på förskola mellan pedagoger och de yngsta barnen i ett genusperspektiv (Vol. 147). Lund: Gleerup. OECD. (2006). Starting strong II. Early childhood education and care. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Reikrås, E., Løge, I.K. & Knivsberg, A.M. (2012) The Mathematical Competencies of Toddlers Expressed in Their Play and Daily Life Activities in Norwegian IJEC 44 p.: 91–114 Statistics Norway (2013) Silverman, I. W. (2003). Gender Differences in Delay of Gratification: A Meta-Analysis. Sez Roles, 49 (Nos. 9/10). Warrington, M., & Younger, M. (2006). Raising Boys' Achievement in Primary Schools Maidenhead: Open University Press. Zambrana, I. M., Ystrom, E., & Pons, F. (2012). Impact of Gender, Maternal Education, and Birth Order on the Development of Language Comprehension: A Longitudinal Study from 18 to 36 Months of Age. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 33(2), 146-155.
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