27 SES 05.5 PS, General Poster Session
General Poster Session, Chaired by Convenors of NW 27
In the classroom, students are either intrinsically or extrinsically motivated to engage in activities. Intrinsic motivation is the desire to engage in an activity for no reason other than enjoyment, challenge, pleasure, or interest (Berlyne, 1960; Hunt, 1965; Lepper, Corpus, & Iyengar, 2005; White, 1959). Extrinsic motivation involves engaging in an activity for explicit rewards or because of other external constraints (Pintrich & Schunk, 2008). Harter (1981) developed a measure of intrinsic and extrinsic classroom motivational orientation, in which intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were characterized as opposing poles of a single dimension, and reported that children’s intrinsic motivation declined from elementary school through junior high school. Lepper, Corpus, and Iyengar (2005) pointed out that the opposition of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in Harter’s scale was not always necessary or appropriate in the average classroom. Based upon Harter’s scale, Lepper et al. (2005) developed two separate motivational orientation scales to assess children’s intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the classroom. They found that intrinsic motivation decreased significantly from 3rd grade through 8th grade, while extrinsic motivation showed few differences across grade levels. No gender differences were found in children’s intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Children’s intrinsic motivation was found to be negatively associated with their extrinsic motivation.
As junior high school students were found to be less intrinsically motivated in the classroom, there was a need to examine their motivation in greater depth. There is evidence for a positive relationship between Taiwanese pupils’ intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation (Chen & Wu, 2010). We argue that cultural differences may exist in intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the classroom. In light of the above, the purposes of this study were: (1) to understand Taiwanese junior high school students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the classroom; (2) to determine the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in Taiwanese junior high school students; and (3) to examine relationships between Taiwanese junior high school students’ background variables (i.e. gender, grade) and their motivation in the classroom.
Berlyne, D. E. (1960). Conflict, arousal, and curiosity. New York: McGraw-Hill. Chen, P.-H.*, & Wu, J.-R. (2010). Rewards for reading: their effects on reading motivation. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 3, 1-8. Gottfried, A. E. (1985). Academic intrinsic motivation in elementary and junior high school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 631-645. Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W. (2001). Continuity of academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through late adolescence. A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 3-13. Harter, S. (1981). A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components. Developmental Psychology, 17, 300-312. Harter, S. & Connell, J (1984). A comparison of alternative models of the relationships between academic achievement and children’ perceptions of competence, control, and motivational orientation. In J. Nicholls（Ed.）.The development of achievement-related conditions and behavior. Greenwich, CT：JAI Press. Harter, S. & Jackson, B. K. (1992). Trait vs. nontrait conceptualizations of intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientation. Motivation and Emotion, 16, 209-230. Hunt, J. M. V. (1965). Intrinsic motivation and its role in psychological development. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (vol. 13, pp. 189-282). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Iyengar, S. S., Lepper, M. R., & Ross, L. (1999). Independence from whom? Interdependence with whom? Cultural perspectives on ingroups versus outgroups. In D. Prentice & D. Miller (Eds.), Cultural divides (pp. 273-301). New York: Sage. Jackson, B. K. (1992). Trait vs. nontrait conceptualizations of intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientation. Motivation and Emotion, 16, 209-230. Kruglanski, A. W., Friedman, I., & Zeevi, G. (1971). The effects of extrinsic incentives in some qualitative aspects of task performance. Journal of Personality, 39, 606-617. Lepper, M. R., Greene, D., & Nisbett, R. E. (1973). Undermining children’s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the “overjustification” hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28, 129-137. Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H.＆ Iyengar, S. S. (2005). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the classroom: Age differences and academic correlates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 184-196. Pintrich, P. R. & Schunk, D. H. (2008). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications (3th ed). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new direction. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67. White, T. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297-333.
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