ERG SES C 04, Social Aspects of Education
This text deals with problem of pedagogical communication between the Roma pupils and their teachers at the lower secondary school, particulary the levels of power in the class.
Cultural conflicts between pupils and teachers is explored by Prague group of school ethnography. Bittnerová (1995) describes that the least serious conflicts between pupils and teachers are those conflicts that affect individuals by their consequences because these consequences do not affect the whole group. To the characteristics that describe this type of cultural conflicts belongs that the student is not mature psychophysically to create a permanent voluntary efforts, this is reflected in not following the lecture and doing other activities. These conflicts are caused by disrespect if school culture. Another type of cultural conflict which describes Bittnerová (1995) are based on the acquisition of school culture institutions. During the compulsory school attendance pupils learn the culture of the school as an institution, while strengthening the internal relationships in the classroom. Cultural conflicts that interfere with the positional role of the pupil in his group, are percieved very sharply by the student. If the teacher question him, the student is able to attract the whole group to his side. These are the cases that are associated with disrespect and unfamiliarity of the internal structure of the class. This is usually done by a teacher when " tested " by students. The teacher is trying to get respect from the most cheeky but the most influential student in the class. As the most obvious cultural conflict Bittnerová (1995) considers the cultural conflict between a group of students and teachers, which is based on an awareness of their own group identity of students. It can be described as spontaneous or deliberate communication during the class, such as talking with a neighbor turning to the desks behind them, communication using gestures. This behavior of pupils strengthen their togetherness. It can be therefore said that students take power over teachers if they are acused and their place in the class structure is strictly given, either as individuals or join power as a group and enforce it. Author Peter Woods (1979) developed a typology, which describes how students develop behavioral patterns in response to teachers‘ requests. These schemes include conformity, where pupils enthusiastically agree with the objectives of teachers and schools, the second scheme is ritualism, which Woods describes as the acceptance of the school standards without identifying with those standards. The third behavioral scheme is escape, which is characterized by indifference to the objectives of the school, the pupils are quietly engaged in other activities instead of fulfilling teachers’ tasks. The fourth scheme is colonization, where pupils seemingly accept school norms and attitudes, in order to meet their own targets. Wright and Proctor (1961) who states in publikacion by Flanders (1970) have developed a system for analizing the rigor or lack of it, in class discussion of mathematies as well as the degree of students participation. As Mehan states (1979) the traditional conception of the classroom places the teacher at the front of room and students in neat rows of desk facing the teacher.
Bittnerová, D. (1995). Střet zájmů – kulturní konflikt mezi učiteli a žáky. In Pražská skupina školní etnografie. Typy žáků. Praha: Pedagogická fakulta. Bogdan, R. c. & Biklen, S.K. (2002) Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theories and Methods. Publisher: Allyn & Bacon. Flanders, N. (1970). Analysing Teaching Behavior. Reading : Addison-Wesley Gobo, G. (2011). Ethnography. In Silverman, E. (ed.) Qualitative Research (p. 15-35). London: ECIY ISP Hendl, J. (2005). Kvalitativní výzkum. Základní metody a aplikace. Praha: Portál. Mehan, H. (1979). Learning Lessons. Social Organisation in the Classroom. Cambridge: Harvard University Press Woods, P. (1979). The dividend school. London: Routledge
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