18 SES 14 JS, Health, Gender and Citizenship
Paper Session Joint Session NW 08 and NW 18
Girls and women have been identified as one of the key groups to focus on in order to increase participation in SPA [1-4]. There is a large consensus with respect to one purpose for Physical Education (PE), which is the promotion of lifelong participation in SPA. The PE is a privileged educational space for girls’ experience and engages in SPA, but they are not gender neutral. Gender issues exist across societies and therefore education, and as a social construction, varies with time and culture, and Portuguese culture shows specificities we must carefully consider in educational terms. In fact, gender seems to be a complete, rigid pattern, but when we scan its essence we verify how fluid, complex and uncertain it becomes .SPA are identified as a place where gender is produced, and the notion of gendered PA is still prevalent in PE classes [6-10].
However the emancipatory potential of SPA lies in the opportunity it provides for girls to experience bodily power, physical skill and expertise, and in that sense, those activities can challenge passive constructions of femininity and offer possibility for the development of girls physicality .
In fact, SPA may help them develop a sense of ownership of their bodies and experiencing themselves physically, and having control over their bodies girls take important steps toward empowering themselves as women [12-14]. In this regard, two concepts will be particularly useful in this research - physicality and empowerment. The term physicality is a conceptual tool to assist in understanding the way girls experience their bodies in and through SPA . Empowerment refers to the process through which women gain the confidence, strength, and in some contexts the information and skills, needed to make strategic choices to improve their lives.
How a girl experiences herself physically and the potential for empowerment through the body are important opportunities to understand the translation that occurs from a physical power to social power [12, 13, 15]. PE may represent a unique opportunity for girls to learn what sufficient PA is, and develop the experience that underpins the understanding, confidence and attitudes required to be active [16, 17]. Adopting emancipatory perspective, SPA in schools can encourage girls to reconstruct the meaning of SPA and how they experience them in their bodies. This approach is essential for a meaningful and safe learning environment, and increase girls’ commitment to SPA.
This study aims to produce knowledge and understanding of how to better work with girls, to meet their individual needs in order to increase their PA levels and fulfil the current health-related PA recommendations.
1. Baptista, F., et al., Livro Verde da Actividade Física. 2011, Lisboa: Instituto do Desporto de Portugal. 2. Eurobarometer, Eurobarometer 72.3 Sport and Physical Activity. 2010: Belgium. 3. Eurobarometer, Special Eurobarometer 412 "Sport and Physical Activity". 2014. 4. Marivoet, S., Hábitos Desportivos da População Portuguesa. 2001 Lisboa: Instituto Nacional de Formação e Estudos do Desporto. 5. Connell, R., Gender. 2002, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. 6. Azzarito, L. and M. Solmon, An Investigation of Students' Embodied Discourses in Physical Education: A Gender Project. Journal of teaching in physical education, 2009. 28(2): p. 173-191. 7. O'Sullivan, M.B., Kim; Gehring, Margaret, Gender equity and physical eduaction: a USA perspective, in Gender and Physical Education. Contemporary Issues and Future Directions, D. Penney, Editor. 2002, Routledge: London and New York. p. 163-189. 8. Penney, D., Gender and physical education: contemporary issues and future directions. 2002, New York: Routledge. 9. Silva, P., P. Botelho-Gomes, and S.V. Goellner, Masculinities and sport: the emphasis on hegemonic masculinity in Portuguese physical education classes. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 2012. 25(3): p. 269-291. 10. Silva, P., P. Botelho-Gomes, and S.V. Goellner, As relações de género no espaço da Educação Física - a percepção de alunos e alunas. Revista Portuguesa Ciências do Desporto, 2008. 8(3): p. 396-405. 11. Wright, J. and A. Dewar, On pleasure and pain: Women speak out about physical activity, in Researching women and sport, G. Clarke and B. Humberstone, Editors. 1997, Macmillan Press: London. p. 80-95. 12. McDermott, L., A qualitative assessment of the significance of body perception to women’s physical activity experiences: revisiting discussions of physicalities. Sociology of Sport Journal 2000. 17(4): p. 331-363. 13. Fisette, J.L., Exploring how girls navigate their embodied identities in physical education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 2011. 16(2): p. 179-196. 14. Garrett, R., Gendered bodies and physical identities, in Body Knowledge and Control. Studies in the sociology of physical education and health, J.E.B.D.J. Wright, Editor. 2004, Routledge: London nd New York. p. 140-156. 15. McDermott, L., Toward a feminist understanding of physicality within the context of women’s physically active and sporting lives. . Sociology of Sport Journal, 1996. 13: p. 12-30. 16. Hobbs, M., et al., A case study objectively assessing female physical activity levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education. European Physical Education Review, 2014. 17. Enright, E. and M. O'Sullivan, Physical Education “in All Sorts of Corners”. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2012. 83(2): p. 255-267.
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Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
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