31 SES 13 C JS, Motivation and Language Learning
Joint Paper Session NW 27 and NW 31
Considerable research has documented the importance of learning motivation for students´ school achievement and lasting learning processes, and has shown that learning motivation develops within supportive contexts (see Urhahne, 2008; Midgley et al., 1998; Siebert, 2006). This paper investigates the relationship between learning motivation and learning aspects of the in- and out-of-school contexts of students in New Middle Schools in Lower Austria. This school type was established in Austria in 2012 with the aim of broadening learning opportunities and educational bases for all students. The reform model of the Lower Austrian Government, especially, places emphasis on learning settings and instructional and methodological changes, and has introduced team teaching, block scheduling, collaborative learning and problem solving. Moreover, the classroom is viewed as the primary and common place of learning, offering students learning opportunities and reducing the need for out-of-school tutoring or parental involvement (Lower Austria, 2009, 2011). Thus, the school class is considered an important learning context and becomes the place where students’ learning history is written.
Siebert (2006) links learning history, the perception of the common learning place and the self-concept of students with their learning motivation. Pekrun, Goetz, Titz & Perry (2002) emphasize the motivational role of emotion for students and stress the importance of self-efficacy for learning motivation. Many studies show that students’ self-concepts influence learning motivation: students with strong perceptions of their own abilities estimate such abilities more highly and describe themselves as highly motivated to learn. However, students with low self-concepts tend to resign themselves and their motivation for problem solving sinks (Guay, Larose & Boivin, 2004; Helmke & Weinert, 1997; Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 2002; Urhahne, 2008). Hagenauer & Hascher (2011) found that some students need more support from teachers or classmates than others, that it is important to respect the different needs of students for abiding by instructions and that student-teacher relationships are related to students’ learning motivation. Wölfer & Cortina (2014) suggested that relationships should not be assumed to be equally important for all students, and Raufelder (2014) found that for some students’ relationships with their classmates were more motivating, while other students were motivated by a positive relationship with their teachers, and the learning motivation of a further group of students did not seem to be related to either relationships with classmates or ones with their teachers. Besides their relationships with classmates and teachers, students benefitted from the perception of a positive class climate. These students liked learning in class, experienced collaborative learning positively and benefitted from a positive socio-emotional learning environment in class.
Studies show that the class environment and the out-of-school context are relevant for students’ learning motivation. Family relationships, support with homework, positive parental behaviour, parental commitment, a social and cultural environment and a higher family income, offer an environment that enables students to improve their learning motivation (Dietz et al., 2005; Sendlmeier & Kröger, 2011; Zimmermann & Sprangler, 2001). Following Bourdieu (1987), the family habitus, which includes resources of the family, their everyday behaviour, and their value systems, is a decisive characteristic of the out-of-school context and also seems important for students’ learning motivation (Archer et al., 2012). The resources of a family and its leisure activities also seem to afford different opportunities. Grunert (2011) noted that besides the family, intact peer relations are also important.
This paper explores how in- and out-of-school components influence perceptions of students’ learning motivation (5th to 8th grade).
Hypothesis 1: Class setting affects learning motivation. Hypothesis 2: Learning motivation is related to family and peers. Hypothesis 3: Selected aspects have a significant impact on the development of the learning motivation of students.
Bourdieu, P. (1987). Die feinen Unterschiede. Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft. Frankfurt: Suhrkomp. Archer, L. et al. (2012). Science Aspirations, Capital, and Family Habitus: How Families Shape Children`s Engagement and Identification With Science. American Educational Research Journal, 49 (5), 881-908. Dietz, F., Schmid, S. & Fries, S. (2005). Lernen oder Freunde treffen? Lernmotivation unter den Bedingungen multipler Handlungsoptionen. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 19(3), 173-189. Grunert, C. (2011). Außerschulische Bildung. In H. Reinders, H. Ditton, C. Gräsel, B. Gniewosz (Hrsg.), Empirische Bildungsforschung. Gegenstandsbereiche (p. 137-148). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag. Guay, F., Larose, S., & Boivin, M. (2004). Academic self-concept and educational attainment level: A 10-year longitudinal study. Self and Identity, 3(1), 53-68. Hagenauer, G. & Hascher, T. (2011). Learning enjoyment in early adolescence, Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice, 16(6), 495-516. Helmke, A. & Weinert, F. E. (1997). Bedingungsfaktoren schulischer Leistungen. In F. E. Weinert (Hrsg.), Psychologie des Unterrichts und der Schule (p. 71-176). Göttingen: Hogrefe. Landesschulrat für Niederösterreich (2009). Modellplan für Niederösterreich. Landesschulrat für Niederösterreich. http://www.lsr-noe.gv.atfileModellplan_07_09_2009.pdf [03.11.1014]. Landesschulrat für Niederösterreich (2011). NÖ Mittelschule – Modellplan. Landesschulrat für Niederösterreich. http://www.lsr-noe.gv.at/file/NOE_Mittelschule_2011_Modellplan.pdf [04.10.1014]. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W. & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37, 91–105. Raufelder, D. (2014). Keine Lust auf Schule und Lernen. Die Rolle von Peers und Lehrer/-innen für die schulische Motivation. Schule im Blickpunkt 2013/14, 5 (47), 6-8. Röhr-Sendlmeier, U., Kröger, M. (2011). Die Bedeutung der mütterlichen Berufstätigkeit für Leistungsmotivation und Berufswahlreife von Jugendlichen. Bildung und Erziehung 64(2), 213-238. Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (2002). Das Konzept der Selbstwirksamkeit. In M. Jerusalem & D. Hopf (Hrsg.), Selbstwirksamkeit und Motivationsprozesse in Bildungsinstitutionen. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, Beiheft 44, 28-53. Siebert, H. (2006). Lernmotivation und Bildungsbeteiligung. Bielefeld: Bertelsmann. Urhahne, D. (2008). Sieben Arten der Lernmotivation. Ein Überblick über zentrale Forschungskonzepte. Psychologische Rundschau, 59 (3), 150–166. Wölfer, R. & Cortina, K. S. (2014). Die soziale Dimension der Lernmotivation – Netzwerkanalytische Untersuchung schulischer Zielorientierungen. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 17(5), 189-204 Zimmermann, P., Sprangler. G. (2001). Jenseits des Klassenzimmers. Der Einfluss der Familie auf Intelligenz, Motivation, Emotion und Leistung im Kontext der Schule. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik 47(4), 461-479.
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