International student mobility has become a focus of the sociological research into higher education especially by the European integration and the widening mobility opportunities within the EHEA, mainly through the ERASMUS programme. Promoting intra-European student mobility has been one of the central objectives of Bologna process, too (Teichler 2012). Although its role in promoting social inclusion and a European identity has been repeatedly emphasized and its economical determinants and effects on a national level has been amply scrutinized by Gonzalez et al (2011), micro-level empirical evidence has suggested that several obstacles hindered these objectives to be realized. Vossensteyn et al (2010) identified, among other factors, financial barriers as the most important obstacles of taking part in mobility programs being present in all the 27 EU member states.
While observing the variation of mobility plans along fields of studies in Hungary, Kiss (2007) underlined the importance of income differences of students as also soundly evidenced earlier by Souto Otero&McCoshan (2006). Souto Otero (2008) observed a moderately widening access of students from lower social status, but he also noticed a considerable economical difference between the background of mobile and non-mobile students. Disadvantaged social status in Hungary has been related both to a weaker command of foreign languages and a lower willingness of studying or working in foreign countries as Nyüsti (2012) stated.
Analysing graduate tracking data from 2012 in ELTE university, Budapest, Czakó&Koltói (2012) concluded that parental educational background as well as financial status of the family proved to be positively correlated both with ERASMUS mobility plans and mobility experiences of students. They also observed that financial support from the family was the third important source of financing mobility. They suggested further analysis for revealing underlying mechanisms like, e.g., self-selection through students’ motivations.
Rodrigues (2012) has cited ample findings which suggested more a cultural and educational than a financial basis for the bias towards advantaged students participating in mobility programs. However, she has also emphasized the lack of scrutinizing non-mobile students as a comparison. Reflecting this need, Souto Otero et al (2013) conducted an international on-line survey, the results of which revealed the lack of information as a further distinctive factor between participating and non-participating students. Based on EUROSTUDENT V survey, Kiss (2014) also concluded that while financial status was clearly related to student mobility, a combined effect of the position within the higher educational structure, parental educational background and social status impacted international mobility plans and experiences. The results of this survey presented that financial, relational and institutional obstacles were the most significant ones for students, the first of which being the most important in the surveyed countries (Hauschildt 2016). This finding was in line with that already asserted by Grabher et al (2014). However, Netz (2013) observed differing national patterns in the effect of deterring factors through multi-variate models based on EUROSTUDENT IV data. It is also remarkable that in a different on-line survey Van Mol (2014: 47) found no significant relationship in most of the surveyed countries between social background of the family and student mobility.
The aim of our paper is to analyse the social background of international student mobility in Hungary. Our hypothesis is that both student participation in mobility programmes and making plans to do so are very closely related to the students’ family background and their detected social status and, at the same time, we expect the disadvantages to cumulate.
Czakó, A., Koltói, L. (2012) Hallgatói mobilitás. Felsőoktatási Műhely, 2012/3, 67–86. Grabher, A., Wejwar, P., Unger, M., Terzieva, B. (2014) Student Mobility in the EHEA: Underrepresentation in Student Credit Mobility and Imbalances in Degree Mobility. Research Report. Wien: IHS Gonzalez, C.G., Mesanza, R.B., Mariel, P. (2011) The Determinants of International Student Mobility Flows: an Empirical Study on the Erasmus Programme. Higher Education, 62/4, 413–430. Hauschildt, K. (2016) What are the Obstacles to Student Mobility During the Decision and Planning Phase? Intelligence Brief No. 02/2016, EUROSTUDENT V, eurostudent.eu Hrubos, I. (2014) Horizontal Diversity of Higher Education Institutions. The Case of Hungary – in European Context. Journal of the European higher education area, 2014/2, 75–94. Kiss, L. (2014) Structural and Socio-economic Background Factors of International Student Mobility. In: Kiss, L. (eds.): The Social Dimension of Higher Education. The Results of EUROSTUDENT V in Hungary. Budapest: Educatio, 27–38. Kiss, P. (2007) Pillanatfelvételek a nemzetközi mobilitásról. Felsőoktatási Műhely, 2007/1, 37–42. Van Mol, C. (2014) Intra-European Student Mobility in International Higher Education Circuits: Europe on the Move. Palgrave Netz, N. (2013) What Deters Students from Studying Abroad? Evidence from Four European Countries and Its Implications for Higher Education Policy. Higher Education Policy (28) 151–174. Nyüsti, Sz. (2012) Hátrányos helyzetben – helyzeti hátrányban a felsőoktatásban. Felsőoktatási Műhely, 2012/2, 33–49. Rodrigues, M. (2012) Determinants and Impacts of Student Mobility: A Literature Review, JRC Scientific and Technical Reports, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union Souto-Otero, M. (2008) The Socio-Economic Background of Erasmus Students: A Trend Towards Wider Inclusion? International Review of Education, 54, 135–154. Souto-Otero, M., McCoshan, A. (2006) Survey of the Socio-Economic Background of ERASMUS Students, Final Report, DG EAC 01/05. Birmingham: ECOTEC Souto-Otero, M., Huisman, J., Beerkens, M., de Wit, H., Suncica, V. (2013) Barriers to International Student Mobility: Evidence From the Erasmus Program. Educational Researcher, 42/2, 70–77. Teichler, U. (2012) International Student Mobility and the Bologna Process. Research in Comparative and International Education, 7/1, 34–49. Vossensteyn, H., Beerkens, M., Cremonini, L., Besançon, B., Focken, N., Leurs, B., McCoshan, A., Mozuraityte, N., Huisman, J., Souto-Otero, M., Pimentel Bótas, P.C., de Wit, H. (2010) Improving the Participation in the ERASMUS Programme. Study, EP DG Internal Policies, IP/B/CULT/IC/2009-053, July 2010, PE 438.603
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.