Universities play an important role in the knowledge-based economy and are expected to play an active role in technological change and innovation. However the role of universities in economic development is less understood than it is supposed. With the development of research universities, cities and regional economies become more critical, but not enough to develop regional economies (Bramwell and Wolfe, 2008). Today, higher education has become a competitive institution affected by costs, prices and subsidies, and everyone in society is affected by this situation ( Winston, 1999). Many universities start to be regarded as firms producing private and social benefits. The positive developments in special benefits also have direct and indirect effects on society (Psacharopoulos, 1982). The importance of research universities in developed and developing countries is increasing day by day. It is thought that research universities will become much more common and powerful in the future, which in turn will contribute to economic development ( Chirikov, 2013). There have been also many studies about research universities.(e.g Etzkowitz,2000&2013; Feldman& Desrochers,2003; Knobel, Simoes & Brito Cruzi, 2013; Teixeira, Rocha, Biscaia & Cardosa, 2012; Winston, 1999) The main aim of this article is to understand the changing structure of universities and their role in economic development. From here, the role and contribution of research universities to regional development will be examined in this paper. Additionally some research universities will also be covered by examples.
Bramwell, A. & Wolfe, David A., (2008) Universities and regional economic development: The entrepreneurial University of Waterloo, Research Policy, 37 (8), 1175-1187 Chirikov, I., (2013), Research Universities as knowledge networks: the role of institutional research, Studies in Higher Education, 38(3), 456-469. Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2011) Research Methods in Education, 7th Edition, London & New York: Routledge. Etzkowitz, H., (2003), Research groups as ‘quasi-firms’ : the invention of the entrepreneurial university, Research Policy, 32, 109-121. Etzkowitz, H., Webster A., Gebhardt C. & Terra, B. R. C., (2000), The future of the university and the university of the future: evolution ivory tower to entrepreneuriaş paradigm, Research Policy, 29, 313-330. Feldman, M. & Desrochers, P.,(2003), Research Universities and Local Economic Development: Lessons from the History of the Johns Hopkins University, Industry and Innovation (10)1, 5-24. Knobel M., Simoes T. P. & Brito Cruzi C. H., (2013), International Collaborations between Research Universities: Experiences and Best Practies, Studies in Higher Education, 38(3), 405-424. Psacharopoulosi G. (1982), The Economics of Higher Education in Developing Countries, Comparative Education Review, 26(2), 139-159. Silverman, D. (2011) Interpreting Qualitative Data, 4th Edition, London: Sage Publication Ltd. Teixeira, P., Rocha, V., Biscaia, R. & Cardosa M. F., (2012), Myths, Beliefs and Realities: Public-Private Competition and Program Diversification in Higher Education, Journal of Economics Issues 46(3), 683-703. Winstoni Gordon C. (1999) Subsidies, Hierarchy and Peers: The Awkward Economics of Higher Education, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13(1), 13-36.
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