10 SES 05.5 PS, General Poster Session - NW 10
General Poster Session
(a) Theoretical Background: The question of how to deal with student misconceptions in school classes is crucial for a constructivist physics education approach (Müller, Wodzinski, & Hopf, 2011; Schuler, 2011). According to Jung (1986), misconceptions are ideas about science principles and phenomena. These misconceptions emerge from everyday life experiences. Strategies for teachers to handle those misconceptions can be continuous or discontinuous. Continuous strategies are (a) the bridging strategy by Clement (1993), (b) linking or (c) reinterpretation strategies (Jung, 1986). Discontinuous strategies are widely described within the conceptual change theory (Posner, Strike, Hewson, & Gertzog, 1982) taking a cognitive conflict with the learner as a starting point. Dealing with misconceptions is well-established as an integral component of university-based teacher training for preservice Science teachers (Kircher, Girwidz, & Häußler, 2015, p. 58). However, up to current date, there is no higher education training concept in place enabling Science teacher trainees (STT) to link conceptual change theory and its strategies to actual teaching with real pupils (Fried & Trefzger, 2017). Accordingly, our goal was to develop a practice-enhanced, albeit theory-based teaching concept that improves teaching performance with regard to dealing with misconceptions in science class.
(b) Concept of Physics Teaching-Learning-Lab (TLL): The “Teaching and Learning Laboratory” has a long-standing tradition in teacher training of Science Education (Krofta & Nordmeier, 2014). Our TLLs are based on a mutual conceptualization framework (Rehfeldt, Klempin, Seibert, Mehrtens, & Nordmeier, 2017) for all subjects, including the step structure (see below) and practices within these steps. The TLL is a format in teacher training comprised of iterative field practices embedded in a regular university-based theory course. It is realized within a seven-step structure:
(1) Theory input (e.g. on conceptual change strategies)
(2) Peer-guided preparation of field practice activities
(3) Field practice 1 (microteaching, peers observing)
(4) Reflective session 1
(5) Adaptation and modification of field activities
(6) Field practice 2 (microteaching, peers observing)
(7) Reflective session 2
(1) Conceptual Change strategies are explored within the theory input sessions. (2) Preparation of the field practice focuses on how typical pupil misconceptions can be dealt with. (3) & (6) These activities are then explored twice with small groups of visiting school pupils in the Physics Lab. The teaching performance and observation by peers is highly focused on handling learner responses grounded in Science misconceptions. Following, field experiences are mentally processed through reflection in highly-structured reflective sessions (Barth, 2017). These sessions encompass theory inputs, noticing and reasoning training (Sherin & van Es, 2009), the generation of action alternatives, as well as decision-making for action alternatives and implementation of the respective (Barth, 2017). Reflections and field practice observations are supported by additional theory input on misconceptions.
Reflective sessions occur in peer-trios, with the TLL-instructor being a permanent resource for support and guidance. Subsequent to the initial reflective session (4), teaching preparations are modified taking into account the insights gained from the first reflective session, peer and instructor feedback as well as observation protocols. It is hypothesized that via this intervention, theoretical and practical knowledge will become more integrated (Abels, 2011).
Along these steps, the Physics Lab aims at providing teacher trainees with early practice experiences, whereby theory is supposed to be experienced by PTs as informing practice through means of reflection (Abels, 2011).
The research question is: How does the "teaching performance concerning dealing with misconceptions" develop and improve when visiting a physics TLL?
(a) A first way of analyzing teaching development is by looking at beliefs about teaching practices. Therefore, students self-efficacy (SE) with respect to handling misconceptions can be measured. This is established via using 6-point-Likert scales developed and validated by Meinhardt, Rabe and Krey (2016). Explicitly, the two scales used are 1. "SE on planning teaching practises considering misconceptions" and 2. "SE on teaching considering misconceptions". Research on "transition shock" (Dicke et al., 2016; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, & Hoy, 1998) evidences a decline in SE in correspondence with prior field experience. This effect might be symptomatic of an interrelation between a drop in SE and the overwhelming difficulty of regular teaching contexts. In this rationale, teaching’s complexity coupled with a general decrease in SEs, goes along with negative consequences for the overall teaching satisfaction and pupil achievement (Caprara, Barbaranelli, Steca, & Malone, 2006). Therefore, our TLLs are highly reduced in complexity, as small groups of up to six pupils are taught in familiar surroundings (university rooms). Class-preparation is carried out in trios and learning materials and experiments are pre-prepared. With all these measures in place, transition shock might be prevented or significantly cushioned. The measurement design consists of four times of measurement: A PRE-measurement at the onset of the Physics Lab, an INTER1-measurement succeeding the first, and an INTER2-measurement following field practice 2. A POST-measurement takes place at the end of the TLL (N = 51 STTs). The evaluation method employed is the dependent t-Test with Bonferroni-Holm-correction. (b) Teaching performance itself is elicited via video analysis of field practice microteaching situations. Field practice 1 and Field practice 2 are videotaped by overhead cameras and table microphones. They then are analyzed for "Exploration of prior-knowledge" and "dealing with misconceptions" (Vogelsang, 2014: translation by DR). Analysis methods are 4-point-Likert expert rating scales validated by Vogelsang (2014). These are implemented after watching the videoclips and estimated for interrater reliability (N = 8 PTTs).
(a) Self-Efficacy regarding professional handling of misconceptions takes on a positive development within the students. SE increases from PRE- to POST-measurement with a large effect, being the case for both planning and performing the respective teaching practices (d = 1.21*/1.22*). No "transition shock" could be detected empirically in a decrease of SE, neither in INTER1 nor in INTER2 (ps > .10). We therefore conclude that our TLL’s complexity is reduced to a level where we are able to promote positive beliefs about teaching which is assumed to result in students' reassurance to be able to exercise theoretically appropriate strategies to counteract learners' science misconceptions. (b) First descriptive results from the development of teaching performance via video analysis (ICC .40/.51) show a small positive development of participating in our TLL. On a descriptive basis, a positive development within the scale "dealing with misconceptions" was observed. Outlier analysis and inferential statistics will be applied before the conference takes place. To sum up, after initial steps of analysis, our Physics Lab appears to improve teaching performance of students with regard to the constructs that were subject to closer investigation. The Physics TLL with its implemented practice sessions can therefore provide a performative shift in physics teacher education, concerning dealing with misconceptions. Furthermore, it is hypothesized, that TLLs in General can provide a more practice oriented, yet theory-based course concept. Nevertheless, further data, especially for different theoretical constructs, is required in order to consolidate current findings.
Abels, S. (2011). LehrerInnen als „Reflective Practitioner“. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. Barth, V. L. (2017). Professionelle Wahrnehmung von Störungen im Unterricht. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students’ academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of School Psychology, 44(6), 473–490. Clement, J. (1993). Using bridging analogies and anchoring intuitions to deal with students’ preconceptions in physics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30(10), 1241–1257. Dicke, T., Holzberger, D., Kunina-Habenicht, O., Linninger, C., Schulze-Stocker, F., Seidel, T., … Kunter, M. (2016). „Doppelter Praxisschock“ auf dem Weg ins Lehramt? Psychologie in Erziehung Und Unterricht, 63(4), 244–257. Fried, S., & Trefzger, T. (2017). Eine qualitative Untersuchung zur Anwendung von physikdidaktischem Wissen im Lehr-Lern-Labor. In S. Bernholt (Ed.), GDCP Jahrestagung 2016. Kiel: IPN. Jung, W. (1986). Alltagsvorstellungen und das Lernen von Physik und Chemie. Naturwissenschaften Im Unterricht-Physik/Chemie, 34(13), 2–6. Kircher, E., Girwidz, R., & Häußler, P. (Eds.). (2015). Physikdidaktik: Theorie und Praxis (3. Aufl). Berlin: Springer Spektrum. Krofta, H., & Nordmeier, V. (2014). Bewirken Praxisseminare im Lehr-Lern-Labor Änderungen der Lehrerselbstwirksamkeitserwartung bei Studierenden? PhyDid B - Didaktik Der Physik - Beiträge Zur DPG-Frühjahrstagung. Meinhardt, C., Rabe, T., & Krey, O. (2016). Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen in physikdidaktischen Handlungsfeldern: Skalendokumentation. Halle. Müller, R., Wodzinski, R., & Hopf, M. (2011). Physik allgemein / Schülervorstellungen in der Physik: Festschrift für Hartmut Wiesner (3. unveränderte Auflage). Köln: Aulis. Posner, G. J., Strike, K. A., Hewson, P. W., & Gertzog, W. A. (1982). Accommodation of a scientific conception: Toward a theory of conceptual change. Science Education, 66(2), 211–227. Rehfeldt, D., Klempin, C., Seibert, D., Mehrtens, T., & Nordmeier, V. (2017). Fächerübergreifende Wirkungen von Lehr-Lern-Labor-Seminaren: Adaption für die Fächergruppen Englisch, Geschichte und Sachunterricht. In C. Maurer (Ed.), GDCP Jahrestagung 2016. Kiel: IPN. Schuler, S. (2011). Alltagstheorien zu den Ursachen und Folgen des globalen Klimawandels: Erhebung und Analyse von Schülervorstellungen aus geographiedidaktischer Perspektive. Bochum: Europäischer Universitätsverlag. Sherin, M. G., & van Es, E. A. (2009). Effects of video club participation on teachers’ professional vision. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(1), 20–37. Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher Efficacy: Its Meaning and Measure. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 202–248. Vogelsang, C. (2014). Validierung eines Instruments zur Erfassung der professionellen Handlungskompetenz von (angehenden) Physiklehrkräften. Berlin: Logos.
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