22 SES 01 A, Diversity and Inequality in Higher Education
Entrepreneurial behavior is the study of human behavior including identification and use of opportunities via development of new investment and also creating opportunities in the process organization establishment. In the course of explaining the concept of entrepreneurship, features, functions and various activities are attributed to the individual entrepreneur. Thus providing the framework and classification of definitions could reduce some of the existing confusion. Rather than merely documenting the phenomenon of entrepreneurship, today Entrepreneurship theory is capable of describing the behavior of entrepreneurs, predicting conditions that leads to entrepreneurship and providing valuable guidelines for correct action in a given situation. After the study of the literature entrepreneurial behavior antecedents including: creativity, risktaking,need to success, ambiguity indepence and internal loucus of control, and entrepreneurship behavioral consequences including: job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior identified. Three hypotheses were developed in this study: 1. Antecedents identified in the model are positive effect on entrepreneurial behavior.2. Entrepreneurial behavior has a positive effect on the consequences identified in the model.3. The designed model of antecedents and consequences is in good fit with the data collected.
In this study, research, library and field methods such as questionnaires were used, in terms of data collection method, it is a descriptive and correlational study including variance analysis, the sample is placed against the whole population, and the census method was used. The study population consisted of all staff of Kharazmi University (n= 170).After the data collection, 140 questionnaires were obtained. Following the analysis, 17 questionnaires were excluded due to the lack of authenticity. In the end, 123 questionnaires were analyzed. In order to determine the indicators of the research theoretical model, a questionnaire was used. The scale consists of 24 questions. Each personality characteristic was measured by four items (Poorghaz and Mohammadi, 2011). Zampetakis and Moustakis ’s (2007) scale was used to measure entrepreneurial behavior. This scale contained 12 items . The third scale by Linz (2003) was used to measure organizational. It was consisted of 7 items . A fourth scale by Minnesota (1967) was used to assess job satisfaction. It contained 12 Items. The scale of Spector et al (2010) was used to measure organizational citizenship behavior with 10 Items. Structural Equation Modeling and Software SPSS and PLA were used for data analysis.
This study aimed to assess factors affecting entrepreneurial behavior in the higher education system and its consequences. To achieve this goal, the research conceptual model was examined using questionnaires of staff of the University of Kharazmi. Most of the predictions of this model were confirmed after analysis. The results showed that the significant positive effect of creativity, internal locus of control and independence on entrepreneurial behavior was not confirmed. This could be due to rejection of the creative employee by his/her colleagues and managers, lack of mental or psychological freedom, environment’s pressure to work on the basis of common methods, inflexible regulations, lack of attention to unusual ideas, strong bureaucracy, the injection of funds by the Government and indication of administrative orders. However, the need to succeed, ambiguity tolerance and risk taking have positive and significant effect on entrepreneurial behavior. The significant impact of entrepreneurial behavior on the consequences: organizational citizenship behavior, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction was confirmed because if employees feel that their organization support their creative ideas, they can have real participation in the process of planning and goal setting. They can feel that their organization values their activities. As a result, they will believe that their activities in the organization will affect their destiny and fulfill their needs. Adopting entrepreneurial behavior leads to job satisfaction. On the other hand, encouraging such a behavior enforces organizational citizenship behavior in employees, thus they will be able to move beyond cumbersome administrative rules and help the organizations and their colleagues to achieve their goals with passion and commitment
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