16 SES 03 B, Current and Emergent Theoretical and Ethical Perspectives in Research on ICT in K-12 Education and Teacher Education
Over the last decade there has been an increase in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in European K-12 schools (Author 1, Author 2, Author 3 & Colleague, 201*); Ekberg & Gao, 2018). Laptops, digital tablets and learning management systems (LMS) are examples of ICT tools that are now commonly used in everyday educational practices (Håkansson-Lindqvist, 2015; Jahnke et al., 2017). However, research reports that this movement has not only failed to make a substantial impact in the way that was expected at a policy level (Almerich, 2016; Vrasidas, 2015), but has also resulted in a number of challenges for teachers (Tondeur et al., 2016). One example is Author 2 et al., (201*) who report that it is difficult for teachers to find time to learn to use and integrate ICT tools in their teaching and that there are numerous shortcomings in schools’ LMS. Another example is Scherer and colleagues (2015), who report that teachers need to be convinced that ICT can improve their work if their intention to use this tool in teaching and learning activities is to become a reality.
In parallel with the introduction of ICT in K-12 schools, an increased interest in the concept of digital competence has become evident. For example, Pettersson’s (2017) recent research review on digital competence in educational contexts shows that, at a general level, digital competence “often refers to the skills and literacies needed for the average citizen to be able to learn and navigate in digitalized knowledge society” (p. 2) (cf. Krumsvik, 2012). At the same time, Pettersson stresses the complexity of digital competence when applied in educational contexts and the challenges for teachers in terms of their own level of digital competence (cf. Sipilä, 2014) and when organizing learning activities so that students can develop these competences (cf. Voogt et al., 2013).
Today, digital competence is highly visible in the national educational policies of many European countries and often with a more or less explicit rational of ICT as catalyst for enhanced teaching and learning (cf. Hammond, 2014). For example, in Norway, digital competence has been included in the primary and secondary school curriculum since 2006 (Hatlevik, 2017). In Finland since 2014, and with an expectation in curricula that ICT will be integrated and digital competence targeted in K-12 school (Niemi et al., 2014; Valtonen et al., 2014). In Sweden, a new national strategy for the digitalization of the K-12 school system (Government decision I:1) was launched in the autumn of 2017. In the strategy, the concept of ‘adequate digital competence’ is said to frame future work in school. The strategy consists of three focus areas: (1) digital competence for all in the school system, (2) equal access and use and (3) research and follow-up of the possibilities of digitalization.
In this paper, the aim is to relate the concept of ‘adequate digital competence’ as it is described in the strategy’s second focus area to what teachers say about the existing local practices in three upper secondary schools as preconditions for the possible integration and enactment of the concept in teaching and learning. The four sub-targets in the second area are of special interest. These are: (1) that children, students and the staff who work with them should have access to digital tools according to their needs and preconditions, (2) the provision of appropriate infrastructure and technological pedagogical support, (3) that the digital learning resources used in teaching should be appropriate and ensure an effective use of the possibilities with technology and (4) that digitalization should make the staff’s teaching and administration work easier.
The description of ‘adequate digital competence’ in the second focus area of the Swedish national strategy for the digitalization of the K-12 school system was analyzed by means of a qualitative content analysis (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014). The result was then related to interview data collected during a 4-year research project exploring how ICT is used in three one-to-one upper secondary schools ‘known’ for their advanced use of ICT for teaching and learning. However, and also as reported in Author 1 et al., (201*), the narratives of advanced use have been projected on all three schools. Different specific contextual circumstances can be traced for each school. In school A, this refers to the reputation of the municipality regarding the uptake and use of ICT in its K-12 schools, in School B to a specific Centre of Technology within the school, and in School C as being known for its remote teaching and mixture of educational on-site and distance practices. In the three schools (A, B and C), interviews were conducted with a total of 25 teachers. Most of the teachers either taught the school’s theoretical programmes or vocational programmes, while some of teachers were involved in both programmes. Their special subject orientations ranged from civics, English and mathematics to programming and automatization. Semi-structured interviews focused on issues such as the current possibilities and challenges of using ICT in teaching and learning, the teachers’ professional development, ICT support and infrastructure and the future use of ICT in school. Depending on the teachers’ answers, various follow-up questions were asked to help the respondents to develop and deepen their responses in connection with each local educational practice. The teachers were interviewed individually, with either one or two of the three researchers in the project present during the interview. The interviews lasted between 38 and 110 minutes, with an average of 60 minutes. All 25 interviews were conducted in the respective schools and were first recorded digitally. The interviews have been transcribed verbatim. All the 25 interviews were coded and qualitatively analyzed with the aid of NVivo11® software.
‘Adequate digital competence’, as described in the second strategy area, is here reflected in the light of the teachers’ voices about their current digitized local practices. This is to exemplify the preconditions for an enactment of ‘adequate digital competence’ in teaching and learning. Children, students and the staff who work with them should have access to digital tools according to their needs and preconditions. Access at all three schools was found to be acceptable, although some of the teachers raised concerns about it the difficulty of defining sufficient access if you did not really know which ICT tools could be used. ICT also provided possibilities for individualization, although there was a need for collective resources that could be accessed by all. Further, the ICT tools that were accessible did not always match the digital technologies used in working life. The provision of appropriate infrastructure and technological pedagogical support: The teachers wanted to learn how to use ICT more effectively. Here, the differences between the schools was determined by the level of support that was provided for professional development when using ICT for teaching and learning. At school C, the unstable internet connection was highlighted as an impediment. The digital learning resources used in teaching should be appropriate and ensure an effective use of technology: Here, resources such as websites and specific software (e.g. GeoGebra) were found to be useful. Resources for visualization and the recording of communication exercises were also positive examples. The internet and the smartphone were regarded as distractions for students. Digitalization should make the staff’s teaching and administration work easier: LMS played a central role in teachers’ work, although many complained about its functionality. The use of the LMS was also found to be time consuming. Further, digitalization necessitated additional documentation and administration for the teachers.
Author 1, Author 2 & Author 3 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Published as an international article. Author 2, Author 1 & Author 3 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Published as an international article. Author1, Author 2, Author 3 & Colleague (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Published as an international book chapter. Almerich, G., Orellana, N., Suarez-Rodríguez, J., & Díaz-García, I. (2016). Teachers’ information and communication technology competences: A structural approach. Computers & Education, 100, 110-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.05.002. Government decision I:1 (2017). Supplement to Government decision (2017-10-19). Hatlevik, O.E. (2017). Examining the relationship between teachers’ self-efficacy, their digital competence, Strategies to evaluate information, and use of ICT at school. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 61(5), 555-567. doi: 10.1080/00313831.2016.1172501 Jahnke, I., Bergström, P., Mårell-Olsson, E., Häll, L., & Kumar, S. (2017). Digital didactical designs as research framework: iPad integration in Nordic schools. Computers & Education, 113, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.05.006. Krumsvik, R. J. (2012). Teacher educators’ digital competence. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 58(3), 269–280. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2012.726273. Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook. (3. ed.) Los Angeles: Sage. Niemi, H., Multisilta, J., Lipponen, L., & Vivitsou, M. (Eds.) (2014). Finnish innovations and technologies in schools. A guide towards new ecosystems of learning. Rotterdam: SensePublishers. Pettersson, F. (2017). On the issues of digital competence in educational contexts – a review of literature. Education and Information Technologies, 1-11, First Online. Scherer, R., Siddiq, F. & Teo, T. (2015). Becoming more specific: Measuring and modelling teachers' perceived usefulness of ICT in the context of teaching and learning. Computers & Education, 88, 202-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.05.005. Tondeur, J., Forkosh-Baruch, A., Prestridge, S., Albion, P., & Edirisinghe, S. (2016). Responding to challenges in teacher professional development for ICT integration in education. Educational Technology & Society, 19(3), 110-120. Valtonen, T., Kukkonen, J., Kontkanen, S., Sormunen, K. & Dillon, P. (2014). The impact of authentic learning experiences with ICT on pre-service teachers' intentions to use ICT for teaching and learning. Computers & Education, 81, 49-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.09.008 Voogt, J., Knezek, G., Cox, M., Knezek, D., & ten Brummelhuis, A. (2013). Under which conditions does ICT have a positive effect on teaching and learning? A Call to Action. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29(1), 4e14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00453.x.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.