20 SES 11, Innovative Research Methodology: Educational leadership, problem based learning and language acquisition in an academic, intercultural, inclusive perspective
This report presents the results of the latest stage of the longitudinal study performed at two universities during 2003-2018. The main goal of the longitudinal research was to investigate educational possibilities for the development of the intercultural communication (Veckienė and Večkys, 2003; Večkienė, and Eidukevičiūtė, 2005; Brunevičiūtė and Večkienė, 2005; 2009; Brunevičiūtė et al., 2010). One of the previous – the 7th stage -of theresearch was to investigate educational and practical possibilities for the development of intercultural communication, highlighting the development of the identity of University teachers – tutors of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) – as learning group members. When analyzing the data of this action research, three main themes were found: Teaching for knowledge applying; Interaction in PBL; University Theachers‘ Identity in the changing context, and rubricated in subthemes (Brunevičiūtė, Večkienė, Ramanauskas, 2016).
The PBL system as an innovation was first implemented in the traditional biomedical study program 2007. During the implementation process and after completing the whole program, the assessment of the PBL was carried out: the attitude of teachers who observed PBL, and the attitude of teachers who were teaching PBL classes were evaluated. Also, final-year students participated in an anonymous questionnaire survey. Both teachers and students identified the need to develop PBL tutors’ competencies emphasizing collaboration as team members in a group and in an organization.
Based on these faundings, the latest stage of the study was planed in order to investigate the problem of students‘ and teachers‘ (tutors‘) participation effectiveness in PBL process. Within the context of the paradigm of learning, the concept of the traditional teaching for knowledge applying is replaced by that of an interactive participation process for searching, where interaction between learning group members and with the environment leads to the birth of new understanding (Mac Farline, 1995; Greene et al., 1973.). The aim of teaching is the guidance of the learning process in the educational environment through the creation and improvement of learning-maintaining conditions for effective participation.
The research object was interaction of students and teachers (tutors) of the specialized biomedical University when participating in PBL-type study program learning team.
The aim of the research was to disclose the specialized biomedical University teachers’ (tutors’) attitudes towards the students and teachers interaction for participation effectiveness.
The participants of the research were specialized biomedical University teachers – the participants of the PBL Tutor Training program. Teachers participating in the program as tutors were trained at special courses in two stages: i) for starting tutors, and ii) for acting tutors. The aim of the second stage of the training course was to develop tutors’ competencies by using group supervision and interview for the reflection on the practical experience of interaction in PBL-type study program learning team. The two groups of tutors (n = 20 ) participated in this stage of the research. One group members were half fundamental and half clinical units’ teachers, the other group members –only clinical units’ teachers.
The methodology of the study is based on the theories of the social construction of the reality (Berger &Luckman, 1999), the management of educational changes (Fullan, 1993; Dalin et al., 1993; Hopkins, 1994; Hargreaves, 1998; 2004; Mac Farline, 1995), the concepts of the modern culture (Giddens, 2000), emotional, social and cultural capital (Gendron, 2004; Bourdeu, 1994; Foucallat, 1972), and the social aspects of empowerment (Dominelli, 2004). To design the research process, we implemented the strategy of supervision as a method that stimulates interaction in group, and interview for the reflection on the practical experience in PBL-type study program learning team. The research methods. Based on the conception of PBL in educational practice and the needs for tutoring and supervision (Kadushin, Harkness, 2002; Tsui, 2005; Van Kessel, 1993), the qualitative action research method was used by applying the methods of a focus group and interview. Also, content analysis and interpretation of the results was performed.
The experience gained during tutors’ group meetings (supervision) encourages reflection, conceptualization, and generalization of knowledge. Group supervision allows tutors to acquire experience, to liberate themselves from the feeling of loneliness, and to get professional support. Group supervision also provides the possibility to realize the importance of reflecting on local knowledge in the context of lifelong learning. During the interview, teachers reflected the topics of the subthemes of the three themes. The reflection reveals teachers attitudes towards subthemes: Problem as a questions which needs to be answered The result is not interesting for the students Students‘ group level / participation? Tutors‘ level / intercultural, interprofessional communication? Institutional level / policy, strategy and practise - for innovations. Tutor and PBL group Preconditions for teamworking developments
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