28 SES 11 A, Widening Participation in Higher Education?
Recent political events show forms of opposition to the manner in which the ruling elites conceive the rationalisation process of societies. The Brexit vote on June 23, 2016, the D. Trump election on November 6, 2016 and the “no” to the peace agreement with the FARC in Colombia on October 2, 2016 are only three examples that show signs of resistance to the globalisation standards but also the difficulty to identify their target. These electoral episodes are only some examples of the rejection attitude of the ruling elites’ prescriptions. These last years, movements have appeared both in Europe and outside of Europe demonstrating against standards issued from globalisation: the Spanish indignados, the Occupy Wall Street movements in the United States, the nuits debout at the Place de la République in Paris. The question that arises relates to the meaning that we can give to these forms of opposition. Are they an expression of rejection of the rationalisation process’ variations, and if so do they carry out an alternative project of society?
In the education field, resistances to European and global norms have appeared, under different forms, in the North and in the South (Charlier, Croché 2017). Martuccelli (2004) highlights the return of God in secular academic universes, while Charlier (2004) observes the revival of non-formal education systems via Koranic teaching in Sub-Saharan Africa. Imaniriho (2015) and Kamuzinzi (2007) discuss the stratagems of circumvention and the practices of passive compliance to the Education for All (EFA) policy in Rwanda. Lewandowski (2011) shows the strategies used by the Senegalese authorities to respond to the EFA policy constraints. Berrouche (2009) and Nyéladé (2013) analyse the rejection practices to the transfer of the Licence-Master-Doctorat model, issued from the Bologna Process, in the African countries.
This presentation aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion on the need to (re)conceptualise resistance in the field of education. It pursue the reflection initiated by the symposium, organised during the 2017 EERA Conference, on “the movements resisting the implementation of standards issued form globalisation” and the challenges for the social sciences of education. Moreover, it builds upon the 39th issue of Éducation et Sociétés (2017) journal that discusses case studies worldwide on the forms of resistance to educational standards issued from globalisation. Finally, it is concurrent with recent research on the forms of resistance to global educational prescriptions (Charlier, Panait, 2017) and on their impact on the reformulation of educational policies in the North and in the South (Charlier, Croché, 2017).
We aim to analyse the mechanisms that link the global phenomena of resistance to the standards issued from globalization to the forms of resistance to the Bologna Process and the EFA policy in the education field in the North and in the South. This reflection differs from the theories of resistance developed by the Anglo-Saxon Neo-Marxist sociologists in the 70s and the 80s, who explain the opposition to educational norms as an opposition to the reproduction of class identity (Willis 1977, Apple 1982, etc.). It builds upon the analyses of the emergent scientific field of “resistance studies” (Bass et al. 2018; Vinthagen, Johansson, 2013), which interprets resistance movements in “a broad sense, focusing on all kinds of unarmed resistance by diverse means and techniques” (Vinthagen, 2015: 8). Moreover, it takes into account the recent literature in sociology of education on resistance, critical education and social justice in education (Rizvi, Lingard, 2010; Moss, Osborn, 2010; Flint, Peim, 2012).
Identification and analysis of the opposition/adhesion practices to the Bologna Process. This presentation intends to compare the objectives put forward during different summits related to the Bologna Process and the national reforms undertaken by different European countries, including Belgium, to conform to these objectives. It uses the data collected through the analysis of the follow-up reports on the implementation of the Bologna Process. The objective is to study the appropriation process of European norms by the national authorities and to highlight the variety of national practices within the Bologna Process framework. Identification and analysis of the opposition/adhesion practices to the EFA policy. This presentation relies on a review of the scientific literature on educational policies implemented in Senegal after 2000 and data collected through field research in Dakar, between 2016 and 2018, on the reform of the non-formal education sector of Koranic education. The objective is to highlight the appropriation process of the EFA policy by the Senegalese authorities, the rejection practices and the surreptitious forms of resistance of this policy, as well as the diversity of power centers involved in the reform of the Koranic sector of education.
Among the mechanisms linking the global or regional movements of resistance to globalization and the opposition movements in education, we can enumerate the multiplication of centres of power, the resurgence of religion in secular universes, the manifestation of a multiplicity of forms of resistance, going from appropriation practices to rejection attitudes, passing by surreptitious forms of resistance. The multiplication of power centres requires reconsidering the analysis of resistance embedded in networks that drive the new procedures of domination (Boltanski, 2009). By adopting a reticular approach (Deleuze, Guattari, 1972), we argue that power and resistance take plural forms (Foucault, 1976), which leads us to reconsider the hidden forms of resistance and the references of justices mobilized.
Apple, M. (1982). Education and Power, London, Routledge/Kegan Paul. Bass, M., Lilja, M., Vinthagen S. (2018). Researching Resistance and Social Change. A Critical Approach to Theory and Practice, London/New York, Rowman & Littlefield. Berrouche, Z. (2009). Mise en place du LMD en Algérie : entre nécessité et résistances, in Mazzella, S. (dir.). La mondialisation étudiante. Le Maghreb entre Nord et Sud., Tunis et Paris, Karthala et IRMC, 161-173. Boltanski, L. (2009). De la critique. Précis de sociologie de l’émancipation, Paris, Gallimard. Charlier, J.-É. (2004). Les écoles au Sénégal de l’enseignement officiel au daara, les modèles et leurs répliques, Cahiers de la recherche sur l’éducation et les savoirs, 3 : 39-57. Charlier, J.-É., Croché, S. (2017). Résistances, esquives, ruses et réappropriations. Jeux de dupes et production collective de la doxa en éducation, Éducation et Sociétés, 39 : 119-135. Charlier, J.-É., Panait, O.M. (2017). Resistances to global educational prescriptions in the Global South: theoretical considerations through Michel Foucault’s lenses, British Journal of Sociology of Education, https://doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2017.1351865. Éducation et Sociétés-39 (2017). Résistances au nouvel ordre éducatif mondial, coordonné par Antonio Teodoro et Oana Marina Panait. Flint, K.J., Peim, N. (2012). Rethinking the Education Improvement Agenda. A Critical Philosophical Approach, London/New York, Continuum International Publishing Group. Foucault, M. (1976). Il faut défendre la société : Cours au Collège de France 1976, Paris, Gallimard Seuil. Imaniriho, D. (2015). Appropriation des politiques éducatives. Réflexion sur le fonctionnement du réseau d’acteurs au Rwanda, Thèse de doctorat en sciences de l’éducation, Louvain-la-Neuve, UCL. Kamuzinzi, M. (2007). Confrontation de sept modèles explicatifs des visées de la planification en éducation. Élaboration du plan d’éducation pour tous au Rwanda : étude de cas, Thèse de doctorat en sciences de l’éducation, Louvain-la-Neuve, UCL. Lewandowski, S. (2011). Politiques de lutte contre la pauvreté et inégalités scolaires à Dakar : vers un éclatement des normes éducatives, Autrepart, 3(59), 37-56. Martuccelli, D. (2004). Figures de la domination, Revue Française de Sociologie, 45(3) : 469-497. Moss, D. M., Osborn, T.A. (ed.) (2010). Critical Essays on Resistance in Education, New York, Peter Lang. Nyéladé, R.A. (2013). Le système LMD. Une instrumentation occidentale?, Paris, L’Harmattan. Rizvi, F., Lingard, B. (2010). Globalizing education policy, London/New York, Routledge. Vinthagen, S. (2015). An invitation to develop ‘Resistance Studies’, Editorial, Journal of Resistance Studies, 1(1): 1-17. Willis P. (1977). Learning to Labor, How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs, Aldershot, Gower.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
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