16 SES 14 B, Online Learning / 1:1 policies
In the past few years different European countries and several others from around the world, have incorporated 1 to 1 implementation (one laptop/device per child) in their educational policies. International research focusing on these policies (1 to 1 model) warns that evaluations of these projects have been focused on the frequency, scale and scope of them (Richardson et al., 2013), while highlighting the need for focus on pedagogical aspects, teacher training and participation of the entire educational community (Balanskat et al., 2013; Cuban, 2015) as key issues in the sustainability of these proposals.
In this sense, it seems necessary to take into account the teachers opinions about these programs. Also it is necessary to pay attention their demands and necessities The research results on the teachers perceptions about Project School 2.0 in Galicia (Spain) are here presented. It has been taken into consideration Primary and Secondary school teachers who have taken part in projects from this region and derive from the establishment of the 1 to 1: Abalar and E-DIXGAL policies. The aim is to take into account teachers' opinions and points of view about the educational policies directed to the incorporation of ICT in this Community, in the frame of the two indicated projects, a field that until now hasn't been a subject to study in Galicia.
In the case of Spain, the launching of a 1 to 1 mass project for the Primary and Secondary education classrooms was based on the so-called School Program 2.0. This program emerged in the year 2009 and was abolished in 2012 (Area et al., 2014). It was the last major state education ICT policy, to date, which has had its translation into specific policies at the level of each autonomous community, which implies different modalities of action (Alonso, Guitert, Area and Romeu, 2012).
In the autonomous community of Galicia, this State policy has had its own directive called "Abalar". It aims to transform traditional classrooms into digital classrooms. The expansion of the proposal has not been general, but it does incorporate a significant number of schools (Fraga-Varela and Alonso-Ferreiro, 2016). In order to reach a total digitization, giving up the textbooks in paper format, in the academic year 2014/15 begins a complementary plan called E-DIXGAL Project (Experimental Digital Education Project) that uses Abalar schools to offer a learning experience based exclusively on digital textbooks.
1 to 1 policies have aroused the interest of researchers in educational technology around the world (Balanskat et al., 2013; Larghi & Iparraguirre, 2017). Spain has studied the implementation of these policies in the early years of their development (Area, 2011). The research, focusing on the teachers perspective, highlights the positive assessment of the promotion of ICT integration policies for schools. Although it "has [not] generated substantive changes in the teaching methodology" (Area and Sanabria, 2014, p. 35), it is causing innovations in teaching practice.
From our research we approached the teachers perspective in the only area of Spain where the project is still in force (Galicia). We consider the work to be relevant because it has been more than 5 years since the exploration work developed by the TICSE project (Area, 2011). The research focuses on teachers who have been participating for 8 years on an ongoing 1 to 1 initiative. We consider very relevant to approach their perspective after all this time working continuously with digital technologies in the classroom.
Teachers’ opinions and perceptions about implementation of 1 to 1 programs (Abalar and E-DIXGAL) were collected using the questionnaire of TICSE 2.0 project (Area, 2011). The original questionnaire has been adapted to the Galician context, which involves dealing with small modifications concerning identification issues such as the typology of schools and provinces. It does not question the previous validation of the instrument. It was structured in 23 items that were organized in 6 dimensions that paying attention to questions about the practices with technologies in the classrooms, in relation with the teachers, students and the program School 2.0. The items are mainly of two types: dichotomous answer-format (yes-no) and 5-point Likert scale questions; with the exception of the last question, fully open, where survey respondents can freely express their opinion. The questionnaire was sent to every headmaster/headmistress from schools which participate in 1 to 1 implementation in Galicia (Spain). There are 514 centres involved in that initiative. The objective is that internally the instrument is transferred to teachers linked to 1 to 1 program, requesting their collaboration in the response. We situate the research in the levels of real implantation, teachers who work with students from 10 to 14 years old (6th – 9th grade), since these projects are not extensive for the whole compulsory educational system. Data collection was carried out in the last term of the academic year 2015/2016 and in the first term of the academic year 2016/2017. Majority of the collected surveys came from this term. We obtained responses of to the questionnaire from 270 teachers.
Nowadays, Abalar (and E-DIXGAL) Project is the only 1 to 1 program in force from School 2.0 in Spain. The results can point in two directions. On the one hand, the highly positive view of the teachers on the devices and technology received in schools and classrooms. On the other hand, a negative perspective on the management carried out in the implementation of the 1 to 1 model in Galicia. Teachers indicate that the greatest impact of the 1 to 1 model has been to contribute to the improvement of the quantity and quality of digital technologies in schools. Thus, more than a 70% values the impact of the project in this aspect as high or very high. In addition, a majority percentage (> 80%) believes that it is necessary to extend the 1 to 1 initiative to the entire educational system. In general, they consider the program works out well to methodological innovation (85.1%). However, teachers are critical of the policy on educational technology: more than 45% claim to disagree with the administration of 1 to 1 model. It highlights the lack of general information of the proposal in percentages higher than 40%: on economic investment (47%), teacher training (41.8%) and the educational model of the proposal (40.7%). Data show an absence of pedagogical reflection on the incorporation of technology in classrooms. It feeds the "technocentric" dream (Cuban, 2015). In spite of the years that have elapsed, high expectations continue to be generated around the possibilities of these kinds of policies. Teachers seem to continue to see digital technologies as a "magic key that will allow us to change education and learning" (Dussel, 2017, p. 156). They are considered as authentic political talismans (Litwin, 2005) and hence the contradictions that are evident.
Alonso, C., Guitert, M., Area, M. & Romeu, T. (2012). Un ordenador por alumno: reflexiones del profesorado de Cataluña sobre los entornos 1x1. In J. Hernández, M. Pennesi, D. Sobrino y A. Vázquez, Tendencias emergentes en Educación con TIC (pp. 83-101). Barcelona: Espiral, Educación y Tecnología. Area, M. (2011). Las Políticas de un “ordenador por niño” en España. Visiones y prácticas del profesorado ante el programa escuela 2.0. Un análisis comparado entre comunidades autónomas. Proyecto TICSE 2.0 (Tecnología de la Información y Comunicación en el Sistema Educativo). Retrieved from: https://ampaipse.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/informe_escuela20-prof2011.pdf Area, M. & Sanabria, A.L. (2014). Opiniones, expectativas y valoraciones del profesorado participante en el Programa Escuela 2.0 en España. Educar, 50(1), 15–39 Balanskat, A., Bannister, D., Hertz, B., Sigillò, E., Vuorikari, R. & Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. (2013). Overview and analysis of 1:1 learning initiatives in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office. Retrieved from: http://dx.publications.europa.eu/10.2791/20333 Cuban, L. (2015). Does Integrating Computers into Lessons Mean That Teaching Has Changed? Retrieved from: https://larrycuban.wordpress.com/2015/10/20/does-integrating-computers-into-lessons-mean-that-teaching-has-changed/ Dussel, I. (2017). Perspectivas, tensiones y límites en la evaluación de las políticas Uno a Uno en América Latina. In S. B. Larghi y R. W. Iparraguirre (Eds.), Inclusion Digital: Una Mirada Crítica Sobre La Evaluación del Modelo Uno a Uno En Latinoamerica (pp. 143–164). Buenos Aires, Argentina: Teseo. Fraga, F. & Alonso-Ferreiro, A. (2016). Presencia del libro de texto digital en Galicia: una mirada estadístico-geográfica del Proyecto E-DIXGAL. Profesorado. Revista de currículum y formación del profesorado. 20(1), 91-112. Retrieved from: http://www.redalyc.org/html/567/56745576006/ Litwin, E. (2005). La tecnología educativa en el debate didáctico contemporáneo. In E. Litwin (Comp.), Tecnologías Educativas en tiempos de Internet (pp. 13-34). Buenos Aires: Amorrortu editores. Richardson, J. W., McLeod, S., Flora, K., Sauers, N. J., Kannan, S. & Sincar, M. (2013). Large-Scale 1:1 Computing Initiatives: An Open Access Database. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 9(1), 4–18.
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