29 SES 11, Paradigms in Music Education
Our research focuses on the pragmatic issues of teaching music in our age. In the last century many researchers focused on music education and its effect. In Hungary the reconstructed church-run schools is new area for the researcher. In Western-Europe it has traditional of several type of church-run school, buti n Hungary the historical continuity was interrupt int he middle of 20 century. In 1990, after the changing of the political regime the churh-run sector has strengthed (Drahos, 1992; Nagy, 2002; Kotschy, 2002; Bacskai, 2008). The number of church run-school, and number of teacher and students started to increase after the LXII Law in 2010, when the municipalities has got an opportunity to pass the state sector school to the religious sector (Morvai, 2014; Morvai, 2017; Pusztai, 2013). The paper examined and compared the music education of public and churc-run school, focused on the role of the religious schools in the music education in the form of a comparative study, pointing out differences and similarities between religious and non-religious schools. The study also deals with the educational systems and curricula of the participating schools. The importance of introducing children to music is emphasized; live musical performances and various extracurricular cultural events are also given special consideration in this respect. We are also concerned with studying habits of listening to music from the point of view of education, making the issue of children becoming active music listeners a point of significance as well. The examination of the primary school pupils’ attitudes towards classical music made it clear that those who had more opportunities to learn music would understand classical music sooner (Roulston 2006, Guth 2006). By the 21st century new pedagogical activity became an independent field of study. Experience based pedagogy also includes concert pedagogy where the professional bands, symphonic orchestras provide concert and informal teaching of music as well. These non-formal ways of pedagogy take place outside classroom and school environment. The objective of this new pedagogy is that children have the experience on the venue of the concert and artistic/cultural event (Váradi, 2015). Concert-pedagogy synthesises family and school artistic education. The research also pays attention to how the formal music education can be complemented with the innovative means of concert-pedagogy. We are also concerned curricular and extracurricular methods as well as non-formal models of musical education.
Our research group set out to formulate various hypotheses. This was followed by creating a questionnaire, collecting data analysing them. Two hypotheses were set up: • H1: At the religious schools the role of music education is a lot more significant •H2: The extracurricular education as an experience-based pedagogical factor becomes part of the everyday teaching practice at the religious schools After an overview of relevant special literature, we started empirical research by employing our own questionnaire. The study covered eight schools in Debrecen, Hungary. We prepared two questionnaires that were similar in content but their language was adjusted to the age-groups involved The teachers and pupils were asked 40 and 44 questions respectively. The majority of the questions were multiple-choice, however there were also a few open ones. In closed questions we used 2-6 variants. The research focused on school pupils aged between 8 and 12 (N=270). This age-group already has acces to art education, it can learn the fundamental notions of music, can study instruments and the basics of reading sheet music as well as classical pieces. Their questionnaire focused on the pupils' family backgrounds and financial situations, also inquiring about their habits of and attitudes to learning music, interests in attending other cultural events as well as about the quality of their relationships. The questionnaire for the teachers was prepared for the teachers of the pupils involved in the research. They were asked about their qualifications, their everyday work at school and their and the school's relationship to musical pedagogy.
Our research focuses on an unexplored field of music education. The comparative study examines the music pedagogy of various kinds of schools with different owners from an international point of view. The study contributes to the development of efficiency of the teachers and students by exploring the different music education between the various sectors. We explore whether there are any differences between the variable schools regarding pupils cultural interest, furthermore if it displays any correlation between the music pedagogical methodology of the curricular and extracurricular music education of the participant schools. It also concentrates on establishing the methodology of the extracurricular cultural events and to establish equal opportunities to all. The third issue to be examined in detail is the relationship between formal and non-formal education. Furthermore an answer is sought to the question of how extracurricular education such as experience pedagogy can become part of the everyday pedagogical work of schools.
Bacskai, K. (2008): Református iskolák tanárai. Magyar Pedagógia, 108 (4), 359–378. Drahos, P. (1992): Katolikus iskolák az államosítás után. Educatio, 1(1), 46-64. Guth, P.(2006): The Importance of Music Education. Megtekintés 2017. július 3. http://education.more4kids.info/23/the-importance-of-music-education/ Kotschy, B. (2002): Új egyházi iskolák Magyarországon. Az egyházi iskolák 10 éve. Budapest, Oktatási Minisztérium. 145-163. Morvai, L. (2014): Pedagógusok a fenntartóváltás után. Egyházi iskolává válással kapcsolatos pedagógus-továbbképzések Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén megyében. In: Pusztai G. & Lukács Ágnes (szerk.) Közösségteremtők. Debrecen, Debreceni Egyetemi Kiadó. 225-249. Morvai, L. (2017): Ora et labora? Egyházi középiskolások eredményessége a 2010 utáni szektorbővülést követően. (Egyetemi doktori értekezés). Debrecen, Debreceni Egyetem Humán Tudományok Doktori Iskola. Nagy, P. T. (2002): Egyház és oktatás a rendszerváltás évtizedében Educatio, 11 (1), 73-95. Pusztai, G. (2013) Expansion, Systematization and Social Commitment of Church-run Education in Hungary, Hungarian Educational Research Journal (HERJ) 2 (4) 1-15. Roulston, K .(2006): Qualitative Investigation of Young Children's Music Preferences. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 7. (9) 12. Váradi, J. (2015). Közönségnevelés, élmény-koncert-élmény beépítése a köznevelésbe. in: Maticsák S. (szerk.) Tanulmányok a levelező és részismereti tanárképzés tantárgy-pedagógiai tartalmi megújításáért – ének-zene, zenepedagógia, rajz – és vizuális kultúra. Debrecen, University Press 137-162. Megtekintés 2017. július 3. http://tanarkepzes.unideb.hu/szaktarnet/kiadvanyok/muveszetek.pdf
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