23 SES 04 B, The Role and Impact of the OECD
Since its establishment in 1961 the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has gained increasing influence in the global field of education (Jakobi, 2012; Martens, 2007). Today, the organisation includes 35 member states which are primarily industrialised, Western countries – a majority of them European – due to which it has been criticised of being a ‘rich man’s club’ (Istance, 1996) and a ‘management consulting firm for governments’ (Salzman, 2000). Much research has examined the role and influence of this organisation in relation to its member states but little attention has been paid to the relationship and influence of the OECD on non-member states. However, within the area of education, the organisation has, from the beginning, focused on the inclusion of and cooperation with non-member states as well (Sellar & Lingard, 2013; Woodward, 2009); a recent example of this is the Programme for International Student Assesment (PISA) (2000-) in which 72 countries participated in 2015. In 2007 the OECD launched a programme called “Enhanced Engagement” with the goal of strengthening the cooperation with five non-member states: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa (Clifton & Fuentes, 2014; OECD, 2011). This paper examines the relationship between OECD and non-member states within the field of education exemplified by two of those countries: China and Brazil. The case of Brazil is particularly interesting as the government has aligned its educational policies with the OECD recommendations (Kauko, Centeno, Candido, Shiroma, & Klutas, 2016) and the country currently has a vice chair position on the governing board of PISA (OECD, 2018). The OECD’s relationship with China is different. Since the launch of the “open door” policy in 1978 and the turn towards a more market-oriented economy, the Chinese education system have increasingly been influenced by global actors and organisations (Guo & Guo, 2016; Schulte, 2016). The OECD cooperates with China in multiple ways: by co-organizing conferences with Chinese partners (e.g. the Chinese Ministry of Education), publishing reports in which China is compared to other economies, offering third party assessment of Chinese education and through Chinese participation in the PISA programme in which the municipality of Shanghai took part in 2009 and the municipalities of Beijing, Jiangsu and Guangdong joined in 2015 (OECD, 2016; PISA, 2016; Whitman, 2004). Thus, the aim of the paper is to examine the impact of OECD on Chinese and Brazilian education policy initiatives.
The theoretical framework for analyzing the impact of OECD is inspired by the concepts of ‘transfer’, ‘translation’ and ‘transformation’ borrowed from Cowen (2009). By analyzing archival materials collected in national archives of China and Brazil as well as the OECD archives in Paris, the paper examines the impact of OECD on educational polices in non-member states focusing on particular policies in the countries of Brazil and China.
The paper contributes to the research of the impact of OECD on non-member states by analysing two cases: China and Brazil. A comparison of the impact of OECD educational ideas and policies in these countries will exemplify how the organization cooperates and influences non-member states and the findings will enhance our understanding of the role international organizations play in the global education field.
Clifton, J., & Fuentes, D. (2014). On the limits of policy transfer: The OECD and “The Rest.” Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 16(3), 1–24. Cowen, R. (2009). The transfer, translation and transformation of educational processes: And their shape-shifting? Comparative Education, 45(3), 315–327. https://doi.org/10.1080/03050060903184916 Guo, S., & Guo, Y. (2016). Chinese Education in the Globalized World. An Introduction. In Spotlight on China. Chinese Education in the Globalized World. (pp. 1–16). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Istance, D. (1996). Review: Education at the Chateau de la Muette. Oxford Review of Education, 22(1), 91–96. Jakobi, A. P. (2012). Facilitating Transfer. International Organisations as Central Nodes for Policy Diffusion. In G. Steiner-Khamsi & F. Waldow (Eds.), Policy Borrowing and Lending in Education (pp. 391–407). London: Routledge. Kauko, J., Centeno, V. G., Candido, H., Shiroma, E., & Klutas, A. (2016). The emergence of quality assessment in Brazilian basic education. European Educational Research Journal, 15(5), 558–579. https://doi.org/10.1177/1474904116662889 Martens, K. (2007). How to Become an Influential Actor - The “Comparative Turn” in OECD Education Policy. In New arenas of education governance : the impact of international organizations and markets on educational policy making (pp. 41–55). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. OECD. (2011). Progress Report on Enhanced Engagement. Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level. Paris, 25-26 May 2011. Paris. OECD. (2016). Education in China - A Snapshot. Oecd. Paris. https://doi.org/10.1080/0013 OECD. (2018). PISA Governing Board. Retrieved January 31, 2018, from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/contacts/pisagoverningboard.htm PISA. (2016). PISA 2015 Results in Focus. Oecd, 16. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264266490-en Salzman, J. (2000). Labor Rights, Globalization and Institutions: The role and influence of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Investment.pdf. Michigan Journal of International Law, 21, 769–848. Schulte, B. (2016). World Culture with Chinese Characteristics: When Global Models Go Native. In J. Schriewer (Ed.), World Culture Re-Contextualised (pp. 67–80). London: Routledge. Sellar, S., & Lingard, B. (2013). The OECD and global governance in education. Journal of Education Policy, 28(5), 710–725. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2013.779791 Whitman, I. (2004). OECD Review of Financing and Quality Assurance Reforms in Higher Education in The People’s Republic of China. Paris. Woodward, R. (2009). The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. London: Routledge.
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