05 SES 09, Bullying, School Drop-out, and Addiction
Violence is a crucial problem that has increased in western countries(Hymel, & Swearer, 2015; Jones, Mitchell, & Finkelhor, 2013). Some studies conducted in Spain(Álvarez, Dobarro, Álvarez, Núñez, & Rodríguez, 2014; Merma & Gavilán, 2017; Merma, Peiró, & Gavilán, 2013) also show an increase in violence among young people and have identified the presence of variables that affect coexistence in educational centers, both in Primary Education and in Secondary Education. This problem has become one of the main challenges of the education system in the international and national scope (Gázquez, Pérez, Lucas, & Fernández, 2009).
Although the last Report of the Ombudsman (2007, p. 236) states "that maltreatment between equals has decreased in recent years", the academic community perceives a significant increase in the presence of this type of situations that generate personal problems, psychological, academic and social in the students. Researchers such as Rodríguez, Martínez, Díaz-Aguado and Morentín (2008) agree that situations of intimidation have a series of consequences on victims such as low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and rejection of the school, but also in those who show behaviors violent. Martín, Pulido and Vera (2008) analyze different situations of school violence and exclusion in adolescents conclude that the most frequent situations of violence are associated with passive exclusion ("ignore me"), followed by verbal violence ("they insult me, they speak ill of me, they call me by nicknames that ridicule me") and that exerted on property ("they hide things").
A large part of the studies carried out in recent years in Spain refer to violence between peers or peers, with special reference to bullying. It is characterized because it includes behaviors of various kinds such as teasing, threats, intimidation, physical aggression, exclusion, carried out in a systematic way and that suppose abuse of power, since it is caused by one or several students against a victim who is defenseless, while other people are passive observers of the facts and do not intervene to prevent such situations (Díaz-Aguado, Martínez, & Babarro, 2013).
To eradicate violence it is necessary to consider two strategies: those that try to prevent its occurrence and those that intervene to respond to the problem with the respective measures. Prevention efforts have shown promise for inhibiting the occurrence of violent behavior (Wasserman & Miller, 1998). Preventive interventions aim to reduce risk factors, proactively address behavioral problems before they become stable in chronic behavioral disorders, and have been shown to ensure higher success rates than intervention programs. For example, preventive actions that focus on improving academic performance through changes in classroom management in Primary Education have shown success in reducing future aggressive behaviors (Hawkins, Catalano, Kosterman, Abbott, & Hill, 1999).
Society, and especially young people, change permanently, and have different ways of thinking, living and building their hierarchy of values, so it is important to investigate the new problems that affect them. In this perspective, this research aims to investigate and analyze, both from the opinions of teachers and students, what are the new non-coexisting factors that affect adolescents. Identifying these problems will be essential to design and implement a specific training program for coexistence and prevention of violence in the initial training of future teachers.
The sample was constituted by 1503 people: 887 Spanish students of 5th, 6th Grades of Primary Education and 1st and 2nd Degrees of Secondary Education and 616 teachers of these same educational stages. The sample was selected randomly. The study involved students and teachers from public, private and state-subsidised private schools in the Valencian Community (Spain). The sample was collected during the month of September 2017. The instrument is made up of 26 items that measure 9 dimensions: discrimination, addictions (mobile, video games and drug consumption), disruption, school dropout and absenteeism, indiscipline, school violence, cyberbullying, gender violence and gangs. The answers range from 1=never up to 5=always. The reliability of the questionnaire scales according to Cronbach's alpha was α = 0.92. Once the data was collected, they were organized in the on-line platform of the Research group. Subsequently, the statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS v.23 software, emphasizing the mean and the standard deviation.
According to the findings, non-coexisting prevalent factors are mobile addiction (X=3.45), signaled by 52.83% of participants, and video games (X=3.26) indicated by 44.84%, followed by disruption (X=3.26) for 40.12% of participants, insults, verbal offenses and unpleasant "motes" (X=3) for 29.34% of participants, the delay or permanent delay of the students to start the class (X=2.75) indicated by 25.42% and behaviors of rejection of classmates towards others due to their physical aspect or social class (X=2.67) indicated by 19.49% of participants. On the other hand, the problems that have a lower presence are sexting (X=1.3) manifested by 1.8% of participants, grooming (X=1.3), by 1.53%, insults or criticism of some partner wearing the hijab (X=1.31), by 2.86%, addiction and drug consumption (X=1.40), by 2.39%, and physical aggression between boyfriends (X=1.43), indicated by 2.13% of participants. The results allow us to conclude that there are new uncontrolled problems that affect students, such as mobile addiction and videogames, school absenteeism and social exclusion, although other situations that have increased significantly, such as interruption and verbal violence, persist. In addition, although not in its majority, the findings show that serious problems such as sexting, grooming, xenophobia, gender violence and drug addiction are occurring in students whose ages fluctuate between 10 and 12 years, which indicates that these behaviors appear at younger ages . Training for coexistence from school could be useful and productive to prevent these problems due to its mandatory nature for children and adolescents; because children and adolescents are in the process of forming their psychological personality, that is, their dominant ethos is less affected (Bar-Tal, 2004) and, therefore, is more open to new ideas and information. Based on the results of the study, the University of Alicante (Spain) is implementing a specific training program for coexistence and the prevention of violence for future teachers.
Álvarez, D., Dobarro, A., Núñez, J. C., Rodríguez, C. (2014). La violencia escolar en los centros de educación secundaria de Asturias desde la perspectiva del alumnado. Educación XX1, 17(2), 337-360. Bar‐Tal, D. (2004). Nature, rationale, and effectiveness of education for coexistence. Journal of social Issues, 60(2), 253-271. Defensor del Pueblo-UNICEF (2007). Violencia escolar: el maltrato entre iguales en la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria 1999-2006. Madrid: Publicaciones de la Oficina del Defensor del Pueblo. Díaz-Aguado, M. J., Martínez, R., Babarro, J. M. (2013). El acoso entre adolescentes en España. Prevalencia, papeles adoptados por todo el grupo y características a las que atribuyen la victimización. Revista de Educación, 362, 348-379. Gázquez, J. J., Pérez, M. C., Lucas, F., Fernández, M. (2009). Análisis de la convivencia escolar por los docentes europeos. Aula Abierta, 37, 11-18. Hawkins, J. D., Catalano R. F., Kosterman R., Abbott, R., & Hill, K. G. (1999). Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 153, 226–34. Hymel, S., & Swearer, S. M. (2015). Four decades of research on school bullying: An introduction. American Psychologist, 70(4), 293-299. Jones, L. M., Mitchell, K. J., & Finkelhor, D. (2013). Online harassment in context: Trends from three youth internet safety surveys (2000, 2005, 2010). Psychology of Violence, 3, 53–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0030309 Martín, G., Pulido, R., & Vera, R. (2008). Maltrato entre iguales y exclusión social en la Comunidad de Madrid. Análisis y posibilidades de intervención. Psicología Educativa, 14(2), 103-113. Merma, G., & Gavilán, D. (2017). Las formas de violencia escolar prevalentes y sus posibles consecuencias: percepciones del profesorado. En R. Roig-Vila (Ed.). Investigación en docencia universitaria. Diseñando el futuro a partir de la innovación educativa (pp. 1017-1027). Barcelona: Octaedro. Merma, G., Peiró, S., & Gavilán, D. (2013). Perspectivas sobre educación en valores en tiempos de crisis. Barataria: Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias Sociales, 15, 151-160. Ochoa, A., Peiró, S. (2012). El quehacer docente y la educación en valores. Education in the Knowledge Society, 13(3), 28-48. Ochoa, A., Peiró, S. (2010). Estudio comparativo de las actuaciones de los profesores ante situaciones que alteran la convivencia escolar. El caso de Querétaro (México) y Alicante (España). Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 13(4), 2010, 113-122. Rodríguez, J. M., Martínez, R., Díaz-Aguado, M. J., Morentín, R. (2008). Comportamiento violento en adolescentes: su relación con las estrategias cognitivas y el rendimiento académico. Psicología Educativa, 14(1), 63-81.
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