29 SES 13, Music Education and Change
This analysis seeks to identify important characteristics in community artistic intervention projects reflecting on issues such as access to legitimate culture and a legitimate cultural goods (in the logic of the economy of cultural goods that is music). According to Bourdieu, "nothing distinguishes in such a rigorous manner the different classes as the provision objectively required by legitimate consumption of legitimate art works" (Bourdieu, 2010, p. 92).
Community intervention means, first of all, a careful look and to immerse in the knowledge of the cultural socio-characteristics of that same community by collecting important data on their current living conditions, but also on the future of these conditions for children and their families. This implies to look not only at the children's school courses, but also how these and their families “navigate school (i.e., the nature of the experience and processes), with attention to the quality of their lives and the availability and accessibility of options that will contribute to, if not ensure, their success” (Gadsden 2009, p.IX). The population with whom this project works can, in the conception of Gadsden be considered at risk in terms of the socio-economic constraints that children and their families face.
The concept of Community music has many meanings and guidelines (Higgins, Lee. 2007, p.76). It seems clear is that music always appears linked for a long time, to community concept in the sense that music is essentially a social phenomenon (Shiobara, Mari. 2014). Also, that the concept of community music differs greatly from society to society being always defined by the particular social settings (Veblen, Kari. K. 2007, p.5). However, and admitting that the concept of community music is not consensual, it is generally accepted as having some major features (Koopman, Constantijn 2007, p.153). They are activities in which people engage in making music actively. Their repertoire is adapted to the characteristics of the group and it is not given much importance to the reproduction of fixed repertoire. This adaptation to the different groups allows them to engage in making music in an active way and not only listening to music, which has become the main way people relate to music currently. They are activities specially aimed at fostering people's well-being and social cohesion. Normally are projects that aim to develop capacities in groups that normally would not have access to develop musical capacities.
The projects "Singing Schools-Children's Choir of Casa da Música," seeks to strengthen the articulation between formal and non-formal education, looking at music as an instrument of socio-cultural and affective development of children. The study is based on an ethnographic approach that accompanies the daily life of this Community Music project in three schools of the first cycle of education the Porto area. In addition to the ethnographic observation held in schools, focal discussion groups with children and adults were resorted to deepen the perceptions of the participants about the experience and their perceived impact. At the end of the academic year 2016/2017 the young singers of the three school projects that showed more vocal desire and interest in the choral activity were invited to belong to the children's choir Casa da Música, thus developing more intensely their vocal capabilities. The birth of this choir with about 40 children was accompanied, through the observation of the work sessions in Casa da Música.
The schools involved are public schools of Porto area. These schools have special characteristics, particularly regarding the socio-cultural origin of the children who attend them. They are, in general, children from families whose cultural capital is very distant from the cultural capital valued in the school context.
Aiming at a broad approach to the problem to be studied, a qualitative methodology was chosen, using a longitudinal design with a multiple case study (Bond, 2015, Stake, 2013) listening and observing the actors involved (adults and children). A multiple case study is a particularly important data collection strategy when it is intended to discover "something meaningful" that can be found in several contexts, under the assumption that when studying the parts, one will learn more about the whole (Bond 2015). It In this case we believe that studying parties it is possible to learn more about what goes on in the whole of the three public schools involved in the project Singing Schools, and in the children's Choir of Casa da Música, with a longitudinal design, once the project was accompanied from the second half of the 2016/2017 school year and the school year 2017/2108. In this study the articulation of different methods is done, in order to achieve a broader view of the project in question, involving the actors who participate, collecting and also interpreting in a qualitative way data. We did not know the different contexts, only what were the objectives, public target and general strategies of these Projects. This ignorance was understood as “One of the classic conditions of conducting ethnographic research, that is the strangeness: (…) everything is worthy of observation and record.” (Magnani, 2009, P.8). It was intended that, by emersion in this reality, it would be possible to be surprised by the field of research. Realizing that the field does not provide data, but rather information, information that is transformed into data in the reflective process that is done, at a later stage of its collection (Guber, 2005), it was intended to go on realizing what the field could say about the aspects that would be important to observe. After a patient and continuous work "at some point, as showed Lévi-Strauss, the fragments command themselves, making a meaning even unexpected”. (Magnani, 2009, P.3) This brief ethnographic study (Hughes, 1995) - involving ethnographic observation of regular activities, interviews and focus groups, other activities observation (journalistic interviews, meetings with parents) - made possible to understand the relevance of the research itself, the research issues that emerged from the practice and to test and refine instruments to use in data collection, such as the focus group scripts (children; teachers and musicians) and interviews (project managers).
The way schools care about children is reflected in the way schools care about the children's families. If educators view children simply as students, they are likely to see the family as separate from the school. That is, the family is expected to do its job and. If. The way schools see children is reflected in the way schools see children's families. If the teachers see children simply as students, most likely they'll see family as something separated from school. That is, they Expect families to do their work caring for children, leaving the children’s education to the schools. But if teacher’s view students as children, they are likely to see both the family and the community as partners with the school in children's education and development. In this sense we will be talking about partners recognizing their shared interests in and responsibilities for children, and they work together to create better programs and opportunities for students. (Epstein, 1995) This study explores the possibility that, the opening of schools to the families of children, involving them everyday school life by sharing the work carried out in the context of the Singing Schools Project, being a contribution to bring children and families closer to a more erudite culture and closer to the cultural capital of schools, Promoting a quality education. It is also sought to explore the possibility of developing musical artistic skills (within the logic of acquiring a school capital), and social and personal skills of the participating children, and indirectly also their families.
Bond, Vanessa. L. (2015). Sounds to share: The state of music education in three Reggio Emilia–inspired North American preschools. Journal of Research in Music Education, 62(4), 462-484. Bourdieu, P. (2010). A distinção: uma crítica social da faculdade do juízo. Coimbra: Eduções 70. Epstein, J. L. (1995). School/family/community partnerships. Phi delta kappan, 76(9), 701. Gadsden, V. L., Davis, J. E., & Artiles, A. J. (2009). Introduction: Risk, equity, and schooling: Transforming the discourse. Review of research in education, 33(1), vii-xi. Guber, Rosana. (2004). El salvaje metropolitano: reconstrucción del conocimiento social en el trabajo de campo. Buenos Aires: Paidós. Higgins, Lee. (2007). The impossible future. Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 6(3), 74-96. Hughes, Jonh, King, V., Rodden, T., & Andersen, H. (1995). The role of ethnography in interactive systems design. interactions, 2(2), 56-65. Koopman, Constantijn (2007). Community music as music education: on the educational potential of community music. International Journal of Music Education, 25(2), 151-163. Magnani, José Guilherme. C. (2009). Etnografia como prática e experiência. Horizontes antropológicos, 15(32), 129-156 Stake, Robert. E. (2013). Multiple case study analysis. Guilford Press. Uriarte, Urpi Montoya (2012). O que é fazer etnografia para os antropólogos. Ponto Urbe. Revista do núcleo de antropologia urbana da USP, (11). Veblen, Kari. K. (2007). The many ways of community music. International Journal of Community Music, 1(1), 5-21
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