10 SES 03 C, Collaboration, Reading Literacy and Model-based Teaching
Model-based teaching (MBT) is a major challenge to science teachers (Gilbert & Justi, 2016; Berland, et al., 2016; Haag & Megowan, 2015; Campbell et al., 2013). Science teachers must not only understand the nature of models, but also be able to facilitate the construction, evaluation, and modification of students’ models (Dass et al., 2015; Windschitl et al., 2008; Clement, 2000). Evidence has revealed that science teachers have difficulties with MBT in their classrooms (Campbell et al., 2012; Author, 2011; Schwarz, 2009; Henze et al., 2007), and as a result, recent calls have been placed for study of teacher education activities for preservice teachers (PSTs) on MBT (Couso & Garrido-Espeja; 2017; Ricketts, 2014).
This study aims to investigate the role that science teacher education activities can play in mobilizing MBT and to what extent PSTs actually adapt MBT strategies once in the field. The specific research objectives are three-fold: 1) examine teacher education activities that can have an impact on PSTs understanding and use of MBT; 2) ascertain under what conditions and to what extent do PSTs select practices associated with MBT to implement in their classrooms and 3) hypothesize how MBT a practices are adapted and made viable by PSTs.
Model-based teaching (MBT) is an approach to teaching that has emerged from cognitive and historical research and studies of the epistemic practices of scientists (Morgan, 2000). Mental models are personal cognitive representations (Johnson-Laird, 1983; Norman, 1983) that once expressed in the public domain, are referred to by educators sometimes as models. Modeling for education involves the building, critiquing, modifying, and expressing of these mental models (Darden, 1991; Nersessian, 2002). Building, critiquing, and enriching mental models are fostered in MBT. MBT presupposes, at one level, that people learn by building, critiquing, and enriching their existing mental models of the way a system, such as the human body, works. Also, MBT theory recognizes that the development and expression of mental models is socially negotiated, and therefore, MBT places special emphasis on the emergence of models from dialogic interactions (Boulter et al., 2001; Chiu et al., 2002; Kawasaki et al., 2004). MBT has also been further characterized as a multi-level and cyclical approach to teaching (Clement & Rea-Ramirez, 2008; Author, 2007; Justi & Gilbert, 2002).
There are several studies which have provided deeper insights into impact of teacher education activities on PST understanding of MBT (Ogan-Bekiroglu, 2007; Schwarz & Gwekwerere, 2007; Valanides & Angeli, 2006). In Windschitl and Thompson’s (2006) PST study, for example, PSTs engaged in micro-teaching, the construction of pulley models, reading of papers about models, and a presentation on a personal inquiry. They believed that the teacher education activities that had the highest impact on their intentions to utilize MBT were co-constructing models as a class, modeling discourse in the class, and reading a paper on modeling, but they were unsure whether PSTs did attempt to teach using these methods once in the field. In Schwarz’s et al. (2008) study, the PSTs engaged in using simulations for modeling and a pedagogical framework for teaching referred to as EIMA. In their analysis, it was found that the majority of teachers used and adapted the EIMA framework with their final lesson plans. The authors noted that teacher education activities had an impact on inquiry; however, less so in terms of model-based forms of inquiry. This study contributes to the field of MBT in teacher education in at least two ways: 1) by examining the rank order impact of various of teacher education activities from PST perspectives and, 2) by analyzing the contributions of teaching MBT in the field.
This interpretive study took place during a one-year secondary science teacher education program at a public North American university. Over the course of 14 weeks, six PSTs were enrolled in a science education methods course designed on MBT. The course included 15 hours of community service learning (CSL) and a two-week practicum experience. The syllabus topics for this course included identifying alternative student ideas, approximations of MBT, scaffolds, and the integration of technology resources. The sources of data included pre-and post-course questionnaires, lesson plans, videos of classroom teaching, debriefs and a personal pedagogy statement. Personal pedagogy statements were opportunities for PST to document their understanding of MBT and reflections on their field experiences. Data Source 1. Pre-questionnaire and post questionnaires. At the beginning of the course, PSTs were asked to respond to an open-ended questionnaire about how to teach science. Questions related to their views of knowledge, pedagogical strategies, science and models, and children's scientific concepts were asked. 90 pages in total were gathered for the pre-questionnaire. At the end of the course, a post questionnaire was administered (54 pages in total). This questionnaire included similar questions to the pre-questionnaire and also Likert questions on modeling and MBT strategies in a hypothetical teaching scenario. It also sought to ascertain the activities that had a high impact on their understanding of MBT. Data Source 2. Lesson plans. PSTs developed and taught lessons to each other and to high school students. This data included lessons where PSTS were asked to utilize a MBT approach and their reflections about the implementation of this lesson plan. 137 pp. in total of lesson plans were collected. Data Source 3. Personal Pedagogical Statement. This document was developed by PSTs in order to provide evidence of their understanding of modeling, MBT, and how they adapted MBT for teaching in the field (50 pages in total). The qualitative data were analyzed by using a constant comparative method (Glaser, 2002; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Codes on MBT were developed dand refined initially and through practice coding sessions. To reduce biases, coders compared their codes until agreement was reached.
Evidence revealed that not only did particular course activities, such as research on children's conceptions enrich MBT, but PSTs reshaped their pedagogical strategies once on-site to encourage high school students to engage in MBT. PSTs in the beginning of the course had some ideas about what a model is and how this can be used for scientists to represent phenomena and scientific ideas. PSTs' ideas about modeling and how they can use models in the classroom were initially limited and vaguely described; however, at the end of the course, the analysis of post questionnaire and PSTs' pedagogical statement showed that they improved not only their understanding of the nature of models but also enhanced their comprehension about the importance of modeling for teaching science. Moreover, they were able to plan, implement, and evaluate an intervention that considered the generation, evaluation, and modification steps in order to support students' understanding in a MBT, justifying their pedagogical decisions and analyzing their teaching practices. The activities that had the greatest impact for teaching about MBT were investigation of children's alternative conceptions, hands-on activities with simulations etc to teach about models and uses of digital technology, sharing resources with each other, and approximating MBT practice in the teacher education classroom. Lesson planning, critiquing lessons, and practicing in the field were ranked below these activities and above reflection. Recommendations for teacher education and field experiences are suggested based on these results.
Aktan, M. B. (2016). Pre-service science teachers' perceptions and attitudes about the use of models. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 15(1), 7-17. Clement, J. (2000). Model based learning as a key research area for science education. International Journal of Science Education, 22(9), 1041-1053. Fazio, X., Melville, W., & Bartley, A. (2010). The problematic nature of the practicum: A key determinant of pre-service teachers' emerging inquiry-based science practices. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 21(6), 665-681. Gilbert, J. K., & Justi, R. (2016). Educating teachers to facilitate modelling-based teaching. In Modelling-based Teaching in Science Education (pp. 223-251). Springer International Publishing. Glaser BG (2002) Conceptualization: on theory and theorizing using grounded theory. Int J Qual Methods 1(2):1–31. Glaser BG, Strauss AL (1967) The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Aldine, Chicago, IL. Henze, I., van Driel, J. H., & Verloop, N. (2007). Science teachers' knowledge about teaching models and modelling in the context of a new syllabus on public understanding of science. Research in Science Education, 37(2), 99-122. Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1983). Mental models. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Justi, R., & Gilbert, J.K. (2002). Modeling, teachers' views on the nature of modeling, and implications for the education of modelers. International Journal of Science Education, 24(4), 369-387. Kenyon, L., Davis, E. A., & Hug, B. (2011). Design approaches to support preservice teachers in scientific modeling. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 22(1), 1-21. Nersessian, N. (2002). The cognitive basis of model-based reasoning in science. In Carruthers, P., Stich, S., & Siegal, M. (Eds.) The Cognitive Basis of Science, (pp.133-153). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Schwarz, C.V. (2009). Developing preservice elementary teachers' knowledge and practices through modeling‐centered scientific inquiry. Science Education, 93(4), 720-744. Schwarz, C. V., & Gwekwerere, Y. N. (2007). Using a guided inquiry and modeling instructional framework (EIMA) to support preservice K‐8 science teaching. Science education, 91(1), 158-186. Windschitl, M., Thompson, J., & Braaten, M. (2008). Beyond the scientific method: Model‐based inquiry as a new paradigm of preference for school science investigations. Science education, 92(5), 941-967. Windschitl, M. & Thompson, J. (2006). Transcending simple forms of school science investigation: The impact of preservice instruction on teachers' understandings of model-based inquiry. American Educational Research Journal 43, ( 4): 783-835.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.