04 SES 03 E, Leadership, Democracy And Inclusion In Pre-Primary Education: How Far Have We Gone?
Globalization change everyday life for people, and these changes are clearly visible in the education system. Therefore, there is a need to develop new and diverse ways to ensure that all children are have the same conditions in developing self-identity, be acknowledge for their different cultural and social background. As a part of the education in Norway, kindergarten both affect and are influenced by these processes. As a social institution, the kindergarten is thus affected by local, national and global conditions, and also influences ways of organizing and manage the kindergarten in Norway. Analysis of European kindergarten policy by Scheiwe and Willekens (2010) refers to two models and motives for the kindergarten; school preparatory and social pedagogical education. In In Scandinavia and in some countries in Central Europe, the social pedagogical model, where learning and care are seen together is the dominant model, while the school-preparatory model dominates in English-speaking and French-speaking country (White Paper 41- 2008, p. 16, Mahon 2010). The Norwegian policy on kindergarten is highly influenced by the OECD's political ideas about kindergarten, but as a member nation in the network Norway has also been an active contributor to the OECD's work (Mahon 2010).
Social change, changing framework and new competitive situation have also helped to challenge the Kindergarten sector in new ways. With full kindergarten coverage, it is re-discussed what role the kindergarten is going to play. There is a general perception that the sector needs a quality improvement (White paper 41-Quality in kindergarten 2008-2009). The society’s growing degree of cultural pluralism also places new demands on educational and pedagogical content and quality (Børhaug and Lotsberg 2010). The project investigate the importance of leadership for the preservation of cultural diversity in kindergarten.The objective is research-based knowledge about how kindergarten leaders make educational and professional assessments related to the preservation of cultural diversity in the kindergarten, and how ethic minority parents experience having children in Norwegian kindergarten. The Phd - research project can contribute to new research-based and empirical knowledge to the field of research and practice on how kindergarten leaders have an impact on how cultural diversity is taken care of in kindergarten, and how ethnic and how ethnic minorities experience being included in the same way as part of the population.The latter will not be the main focus for this presentation.
The project has a theoretical approach to management as value-based and relational (Vedøy 2017; Fuglestad 2006; Fuglestad and Lillejord 1997). In order to capture how external requirements and expectations are integrated into kindergarten practices and how such processes pass, I will use translation theory (Røvik 2008). In addition, in the analysis of the diverse identities of educational leaders and ethnic minority parents, I will use Bourdieus (1977; 1994; 1996; 2004) concepts; illusio, habitus, capital and fields. A link between theory of management and Bourdieus concepts opens up to capture how values, norms and external expectations affect leadership and multicultural practices in kindergartens, both institutionally and individually. The project combines theory of management with multicultural perspectives in a way that can provide insight into key aspects of processes in socierty. The following main questions have been prepared for the Phd-project: How is the kindergarten managed, focusing on cultural diversity, and how do ethnic minority parents experience this? The presentation will focus upon the first part of the research question.
Methodological design The research methodology is qualitative, and the design is inductive and explorative. I use different types of data (Grønmo 2004); conducting field work in 4 different kindergartens, group interviews with educational leaders and minority parents, interviews with directors and owners, and document analysis of relevant White paper documents from national authorities and strategic plans of kindergarten owners. Fieldwork, interviews, group interviews and documents will complement each other, and together answer the research questions better than alone. In line with qualitative method the aim is to gain a more holistic understanding of the social contexts studied.
Expected conclusions/findings The PhD- project are still in an early stage and therefore at the present there are no findings or presumptions/preliminary findings. My first phase of data collection with fieldwork and group interviews was conducted in November last year and will continue in January-May this year. Preliminary findings will be presented at conference in September.
Literature Bourdieu, P. (1995a). Den kritiske ettertanke : grunnlag for samfunnsanalyse (2. oppl. utg.). Oslo: Samlaget. Bourdieu, P. (1995b). Distinksjonen: en sosiologisk kritikk av dømmekraften. Oslo: Pax Bourdieu, P. (1996). Symbolsk makt : artikler i utvalg. Oslo: Pax. Bourdieu, P. & Nice, R. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Børhaug, K. & Lotsberg, D. Ø. (2010). Barnehageledelse i endring. Nordisk barnehageforskning Fuglestad O.L. & Lillejord, S. (red).1997. Pedagogisk ledelse- et relasjonelt perspektiv. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget Vigmostad og Bjørke AS Fulglestad, O.L. 2006. Leiing som kunnskapsutvikling, i Ledelse i anerkjente skoler. Møller, J. & Fuglestad, O.L. (red), Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, s. 179-198 Grønmo, S. 2004. Samfunnsvitenskapelige metoder. Fagbokforlaget. Bergen. Mahon, R. (2010). After neo-liberalism : The OECD, the world bank and the child. Global Social Policy, 10 (2), pp. 172-192) Røvik, K. A. (2007). Trender og translasjoner: ideer som former det 21. århundrets organisasjon. Oslo: Universitetsforl. Scheiwe, K, & H. Wilkens. 2009. Child Care and Preschool Development in Europe: Institutional perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan Vedøy, G. (2017). Ledelse i og av flerkulturelle skoler. Oslo: Universitetsforl. White paper St. Medl. 41 (2008-2009): Kvalitet i barnehagen, Kunnskapsdepartementet
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