20 SES 02, From International to Multicultural Classrooms Experiences
Multilingualism is a growing trend around the world as local languages are complemented by national, regional, and international languages in education systems as policymakers respond to the forces and impacts of globalization. This study explores the implementation of trilingual education in the secondary schools in Kazakhstan. The research topic seeks to explore the changes to taught Science in the secondary school, with regard to use of Kazakh or Russian to English.
According to Mehisto et al. (2014) Kazakhstan, through trilingual education, plans to evolve a trilingual society by 2020 where 95% of citizens can speak Kazakh fluently in the proficient level, 90% of people can speak Russian at the same level and 20% of citizens in English (Kazakhstan 2050 n.d.). To achieve the aim, special schools were created all over Kazakhstan, where implementation of trilingual policy started , by "using CLIL approach, stating language proficiency expectation in terms of Common European Framework of Reference of Language (CEFR) bands" (Garcia et al., 2017, p. 272).
Therefore, my research questions are:
1) To what extent has the changing policy of trilingual language adoptation been successfully realized in school A?
2) To what extent have education staff's intrinsic and extrinsic motivation helped them to adopt to the change?
3) What have been the barriers to adopting the policy?
School named A is a secondary school and was selected for this research study because it was initially created as a place for approbation and implementation of new and modern innovations. So, the implementation of the trilingual policy has started there. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to analyse how successfully the policy was adopted in the school A and diagnose the problems, challenges and barriers that face teachers when they start teaching in the third language, then to find to what extend they motivated to adopt the changes. In the end of the study, I will put forward a roadmap for teachers in other schools to adopt third language in their work.
For this work mixed research methodology has been chosen. I believe that mix method approach will lead to "findings that work sufficiently well to answer a research problem" (Denscombe, 2007, p.117). The questionnaire was sent to teachers of Chemistry, ICT, Physics, Biology and English. English languages teachers were selected because English is still their third language and the barriers which they had when studied might be similar. Also, they had to give lessons of English to teachers of their school and they might notice some typical barriers they faced and suggest the way to help them. Teachers of science were not selected randomly, only those who started to give lessons in English were chosen. The next part of my research work was to collect data for documentary research. Policy documentation will be analysed to see to what extent the findings agree with the policies or where gaps are seen. Content analysis (Robson, 2011) and documentary analysis (Palaiologou, 2016, Briggs, et.al., 2012) were one of the methods used in this research paper.
Findings Problems 1) lack of English classes for Schience subject teachers; 2) lack of time to prepare for the lessons in English; 3) The implementation of the trilingual policy in public schools will demand a lot more finance as it was in the School A. But the finance invested on the development of the educators will return back and bring profit. That is why most of the researchers like Earley(2015) agree that CPD is a key to any change. Teacher play very important role for successful implementation of a policy and work in the school, because they stay between government and students, future generation who will take the reins and lead the country; 4) the phenomenon which usually face bi-/multilingual speaking people are "code—mixing" and "code-switching" (Kazzazi, 2011); 5) lack of resources; highly possible problem that might appear is the implementation of the trilingual policy in the rural areas of Kazakhstan Solutions: 1) there is high need to empower teacher. Teachers should be involved in analysing their work, making choice and speaking up their opinion, in other words there should be developed trust between leadership team and teachers and teachers should be given more responsibility to take actions and be pro-active. 2) Teachers should be motivated and determined to learn the language and start practicing. 3) Teachers of the School A should get more knowledge and when they feel that they are ready to spread the knowledge and practice, they should start piloting public schools. After that piloting schools might go and transmit the knowledge to other schools, and etc.
Bridges, D. (2014). Educational reform and Internationalisation. The Case study of School Reform in Kazakhstan. The Cambridge Education Research Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Coleman, M. and Earley, P., (2005). Leadership and Management in Education. Cultures, Change and Context.Oxfors: Oxford University Press DeYoung, A.J. and Balzhan, S. (1996). Issues in Post-Soviet Secondary School Reform: The case of Kazakhstan. Report Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) Garcia, O., (1993). Understanding the societal role of the teacher in transitional bilingual clasrooms: Lessons from the sociology of language. In K.Zotag (Ed.), BIlingual education in Friesland:Facts and prospects (p25-37). Leeuwardwn/Ljouwert: GCO/MSU Garcia, O., Lin, A.M.Y., and May, S. (2017). Bilingual and Multilingual Education. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan (2011). Bylaw #8778 on Approval of the Action Plan for 2011-2013 for the Implementation of the State Programme of Functionionning and development of languages for 2011-2020. Kazakhstan 2050. (n.d.). Kazakhstan strategy 2050 website (Kazakh, Russian, English. http://strategy2050.kz/en/ Kazzazi, K., (2011). Three languages, two people, one conversation. In Varcasia, C., (Ed.), Becoming Multilingual: Language learning and language policy, between attitudes and identities (pp165-187). Bern: Peter Lang AG, International Academic Publishers. Landau, J.M., and Kellner-Heinkele, B., (2012). Language Politics in Contemporary Central Asia. New York: I.B. Tauris. Mehisto, P., Kambatyrova, A., and Nurseitova, K., (2014). Three in One? Thrilingualism in Policy and educational practice. In D. Bridges (Ed.), Educational Reform and Internationalisation: The Case of school reform in Kazakhstan (pp152-177). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Miles, M.B. (1979). Qualitative data as an attractive nuisance: the problem of analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 590-601. 465 NIS. (n.d.). Nazarbayev Intellectual schools website (in Kazakh, Russian and English). http://nis.edu.kz/en/ OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and development) (2013). Kazakhstan. Paris: OECD Palaiologou, I., Needham, D., Male, T., (2016). Doing Research in Education. Theory and Practice. London: SAGE Publications Ltd Robson, C. (2011). Real world research. 3rd edition. West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Willey & Sons Ltd. Smagulova, J. (2008). Language Policies of Kazakhization and their influence on language attitudes and use. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1 (3-4), 440-475. doi:10.2167/beb547.0 Singer, E. (2006). Introduction: non-response bias in household surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70, 637045. DOI:10.1093/poq/nfl1034. 260 Torres-Guzman, M.E. and Gomez, J., (2009). Global perspectives on Multilingualism. New-York: Teachers College Press
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