30 SES 01 A, Outdoor education and learning
In recent years, anglophone literature has discussed the establishment of the educational concept of "outdoor learning" or "outdoor education" in schools (Rickinson et al., 2004; Fägerstam, 2012). In this context, "outdoor learning" has already been anchored in Scotland through the "Curriculum for Excellence through Outdoor Learning" for children and adolescents between the ages of three and eighteen (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010). In Germany, too, "outdoor education" is receiving increasing attention in educational discourse (Von Au, 2016; Heynoldt, 2016). The reasons for this shift are to be found in the currently discussed deficits in the German education system as well as problems regarding the changed lives of children and adolescents.
Furthermore, there is a discussion in the education system about the promotion of environmentally-oriented and sustainable thinking and acting, since, for example, the concept of key competences has been developed within the framework of "Education for Sustainable Development" (Michelsen, 2006). In spite of numerous innovative projects on "Education for Sustainable Development", it is criticized in this context that ultimately no systematic anchoring of these projects in schools prevailed (Reichel, 2006; Brämer, 2010). In addition, environmental issues continue to play a "marginal role" in school education (Gräsel 2010). Roczen, Kaiser and Bogner (2010) emphasize that "environmental knowledge" and "attachment to nature" are basic prerequisites for the development of "environmental competence".
In summary, it can be seen that the school, as an important socialization authority for children and adolescents, has recognized its significant role in promoting, in particular, cross-subject and cross-situational key competences combined with sustainable behaviour and ways of thinking. Nevertheless, there is a clear need for development in relation to the realization of both concerns. At the same time, due to secular changes in childhood and youth towards a natural distance the relevance of the school in view of the greater involvement of nature becomes visible.
The concepts of "outdoor learning" or "outdoor education" initially address the school's deficit in terms of promoting key competences, by focusing on the promotion of "interpersonal growth or educational skills", i.e. intra- and interpersonal learning and cohesion in a group (Gilbertson et al., 2006). The "Institute for Outdoor Learning" emphasizes in particular learning in nature as well as direct experiences in the field of "outdoor learning" in school as a contrast to traditional school lessons (Greenaway 2005). Here, a further potential of "outdoor learning" to counteract the natural distance of children and adolescents becomes clear. In the following, "environmental education" is a fundamental goal of "outdoor education" (Gilbertson et al., 2006), so that the deficit of the school in terms of the low promotion of environmental issues can be compensated.
To test the practical implementation of "outdoor learning" in schools from Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, among other things, the international project "ACEWild (Alternative Curriculum Education out of the Wild)" was founded (ACE Wild 2015). The second pilot phase in Germany, which took place as part of the organization "RCE Oldenburger Münsterland – Regional Center for Expertise" (Norfolk County Council 2014), is the basis of this paper. For this purpose, in cooperation with the University of Vechta, the Lower Saxon High School "Christian Hülsmeyer School" in Barnstorf and the "Barnstorfer Environment Experience Center" ("BUEZ") an "Outdoor Learning" working group for a total of ten pupils of the fifth and sixth grade was designed.
Accordingly, the present study focuses on the practical implementation of "outdoor learning" and its influence on the previously identified life-relevant key competences and environmental as well as sustainable behaviour and ways of thinking. The subject of the present study describes the influence of outdoor learning activities on the development of PEMS+ competencies in children in 5th and 6th grade. To determine "PEMS+": The "PEMS+" competencies refer to the areas of personnel (P), environmental (E), motivation (M), social (S) and enterprise (+) (ACE Wild 2015). This topic is particularly relevant against the background of the current educational discourse and the current developments in childhood and youth. Regarding the state of research, it became clear that "outdoor education" and "outdoor learning" programs have an impact on the development of children and adolescents in the various "PEMS+" areas of competence. In addition, research was identified with regard to the influence of "outdoor learning" on competence development in children in German secondary schools. Against this background, the focus of the present study is on an individual-centred perspective, in which a closer examination of the following research questions is of interest: 1. How does the competent behaviour of the respective "PEMS+"-competencies of 5th and 6th grade children develop and change during the implementation of "outdoor learning" activities? 2. Which forms of "outdoor learning" activities promote especially observable competent behaviour? 3. How do pupils assess the impact of the outdoor learning agenda on the development of their strengths and weaknesses? To investigate these questions, an inductive, i.e. hypothesis-generating, procedure is used (Lamnek, 2010), which is why a qualitative case study was selected as the basic design. An appropriate field of research and a sample were determined to collect the test material. The survey method for the first two research questions represents a non-participatory, partially standardized observation with the survey tool "PEMS+" (qualitative). It should be pointed out here that the use of the term "competent behaviour" corresponds to the theoretical knowledge of observing a multitude of competent behaviours in order to be able to conclude a competence. The third research question is examined by means of "pre-" and "post" - "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires" (SDQ) (quantitative). For the evaluation of the qualitative survey instrument "PEMS+", a computer-assisted content analysis serves as an evaluation method. For the evaluation of the quantitative SDQ an electronic evaluation program was chosen.
The objective of the study was to closely study the change of "PEMS+"-competencies for children in the 5th and 6th grade in the context of “outdoor learning” activities. Finally, it is interesting to see which forms of activities particularly influence the development of competencies among the pupils and how the pupils perceive the development of their strengths and weaknesses after the working group. In conclusion, in the light of the findings of the empirical study, it can be seen that among the pupils of the 5th and 6th grade class in the "outdoor learning" working group, positive changes in competent behaviour can be seen in all "PEMS+" areas of competence. These findings could be strengthened by incorporating the perspectives of the pupils through the SDQ, identifying a positive change in strengths and weaknesses. More specifically, new insights into the positive influence of various forms of outdoor learning activities on proficient behaviours have been identified. Based on these results, the “outdoor learning” working group was able to successfully put into practice the potential of promoting life-relevant key competences as well as environmental thinking and behaviour in the problem area. Regarding the implementation of the "outdoor learning" working group within the framework of the all-day school program, further research would be necessary in the course of the establishment of “outdoor learning” in the overall school context. Therefore, long-term studies with several grade levels of a year as well as with control groups can reveal more detailed insights into transfer effects. Building on this, further interest may lie in the extent to which the concept can be anchored nationwide in the educational landscape and which structural, human and organizational factors must be taken into account.
ACE Wild (2015): Home. [online] URL: http://www.acewild.eu/ [28.01.2019]. Brämer, Rainer (2010): Natur: Vergessen? Erste Befunde des Jugendreports Natur 2010.[online]URL: https://www.jagdverband.de/sites/default/files/Jugendreport_2010_rz_150.pdf [28.01.2019]. Fägerstam, Emilia (2012): Perspectives on outdoor teaching and learning. Linköping: Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. [online] URL: http://liu.diva- portal.org/smash/get/diva2:551531/FULLTEXT01.pdf [28.01.2019]. Gilbertson, Ken et al. (2006): Outdoor Education. Methods and Strategies. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Gräsel, Cornelia (2010): Umweltbildung. In: Tippelt, Rudolf/ Schmidt, Bernhard (Hrsg.): Handbuch Bildungsforschung. 3., durchgesehene Aufl. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, S. 845-859. Greenaway, Roger (2005): What is Outdoor Learning? [online] URL: https://www.outdoor-learning-research.org/Research/What-is-Outdoor-Learning [28.01.2019]. Heynoldt, Benjamin (2016): Outdoor Education als Produkt handlungsleitender Über- zeugungen von Lehrpersonen. Eine qualitativ-rekonstruktive Studie. Münster: Verlagshaus Monsenstein und Vannerdat OHG. Lamnek, S. (2010): Qualitative Sozialforschung. Lehrbuch. Unter Mitarbeit von Claudia Krell. 5., überab. Aufl. Weinheim, Basel: Beltz Verlag. Learning and Teaching Scotland (Hrsg.) (2010): Curriculum for Excellence through outdoorlearning.[online]URL: https://education.gov.scot/Documents/cfe-through-outdoor-learning.pdf [28.01.2019]. Michelsen, Gerd (2006): Von der Umweltbildung zur Bildung für eine nachhaltige Ent- wicklung: Historische Entwicklung, Inhalte und Selbstverständnis. In: Hiller, Betti- na/ Lange, Manfred (Hrsg.): Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. Perspektiven für die Umweltbildung. Münster: Zentrum für Umweltforschung (ZUFO) der West- fälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster, S. 13-28. Norfolk County Council (2014): Programme: Erasmus+. Title: Alternative Curriculum EducationoutoftheWild.ProjectDetails.[online]URL: http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/projects/eplus-project-details/#project/2014-1-UK01-KA202-001825 [28.01.2019]. Reichel, Norbert (2006): Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung. Eine kurze Bestandsaufnahme zu Beginn der UN-Dekade zu einer Erfolgsgeschichte, die viel- leicht gar keine ist. In: Hiller, Bettina/ Lange, Manfred (Hrsg.): Bildung für nach- haltige Entwicklung. Perspektiven für die Umweltbildung. Münster: Zentrum für Umweltforschung (ZUFO) der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster, S. 91-98. Rickinson, Mark et al. (2004): A Review of Research on Outdoor Learning. Slough: NFER National Foundation for Educational Research. Roczen, Nina/ Kaiser, Florian G./ Bogner, Franz X. (2010): Umweltkompetenz – Modellierung, Entwicklung und Förderung. Projekt Umweltkompetenz. In: Klieme, Eckhard/ Leutner, Detlev/ Klenk, Martina (Hrsg.): Kompetenzmodellierung. Zwischenbilanz des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms und Perspektiven des Forschungsansatzes. Weinheim, Basel: Beltz Verlag, S. 126-134. Von Au, Jakob (2013): Exposé zum Promotionsvorhaben an der Pädagogischen Hoch- schule Heidelberg. Outdoor Education in Deutschland im Sekundarschulbereich – Intentionen, Möglichkeiten und Hindernisse. Heidelberg: Gymnasium Englisches InstitutHeidelberg.[online]URL:https://www.ph-heidelberg.de/fileadmin/ms-faecher/biologie/dokumente/Dissertationsvorhaben_von_Au.pdf[Stand 28.01.2019].
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