06 SES 12, Creation of Videos and their Adoption
Adolescents produce and publish media content in social media but such activating learning environments are rarely employed at school (McVerry et al., 2015). Meanwhile, ever younger learners’ school motivation tends to be reduced. This is partly explained by the gap between media that is used in formal and informal learning environments making learners regard learning as meaningless (Salmela-Aro et al., in press). The impaired motivation has also been recognized internationally by large research projects such as PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) (Kupari et al., 2012).
Learner-generated video production has pedagogical potentials to enhance engagement and motivation (Schuck & Kearney, 2006) by allowing creativity and collaboration which are crucial 21st century skills. It fulfills the broad conception of texts: multimodality, production of texts and a socio-cultural approach. Introducing the conception, the national core curriculum (FNBE 2004) aimed to address the changing media world and make literacy practices meaningful (Räisänen & Korkeamäki, 2015). Through online publishing of the videos, the process implements ‘sharism’ (Ackermann, 2011) and new literacies (Coiro et al., 2008).
Acknowledging the significance of social interaction in teaching, learning and collaboration, this research study addresses the above-described challenge by examining pedagogical potentials of learner-generated video production through investigating social interaction within the process. Online publishing as a natural continuation, the process offers opportunities for multilevel social interaction, including societal interaction between the school and society.
This research builds an understanding of social interaction in creative tasks in the context of contemporary media culture. It suggests a framework to improve the processes and conditions of more successful interaction at each level and thus enhance the educational value of digital video (DV) production.
Social interaction in publishing-oriented DV production
Many researchers have hoped instruction to transform from teacher recitation to the interactive process of teaching-and-learning where teachers and learners contribute to joint meaning making (Staarman & Mercer 2010). Alexander (2005) recommended employing dialogic teaching to invite students to participate and contribute in extended interactions. Leftstein (2010) suggested employing pair and group settings to minimize teacher-centeredness. However, teacher-centered textbook-based literacy practices still adhere to school education (Korkeamäki & Dreher, 2011) and dialogic teaching is still scarce (e.g. Lehesvuori et al., 2013b). Group interaction, if applied, is uncooperative and of little educational value (Mercer & Littleton, 2007).
The pedagogical interaction is socially constructed not only among a learning community but also beyond the walls of the school. Online publishing allows interaction between school and homes about and around the DV production. As the published videos, exposing learners and their products, may have far-reaching consequences of indirect interaction enabled by open online activity and communication (Jaakkola, 2010), this dimension calls for guidance to help children create a responsible online presence (boyd, 2008) in order to become productive citizens.
Learner-generated DV production involves open-ended divergent tasks and creative collaborative learning. In such settings, teaching and interaction differ from convergent subject-based pedagogical interaction appearing in science education. The teacher is an ‘orchestrator of learning’ (Salomon 1992), needed to appropriately support the learners to develop their creative thinking and scaffold the group collaboration.
As teacher–student interaction and peer interaction should not be considered separately in classroom practice (Mercer & Howe, 2012), this research examines interaction not only at peer group and whole-class levels involving teacher(s) and learner(s), but also at the societal level. The research questions are: 1) What kinds of social interaction emerge in the context of publishing-oriented learner-generated digital video production? 2) How can the interaction at different levels be promoted and enhanced?
Alexander RJ (2005) Culture, dialogue and learning: Notes on an emerging pedagogy. Keynote at IACEP conference. Durham, UK. Bales RF (1950) Interaction process analysis. A method for the study of small groups. Cambridge MA, Addison-Wesley. boyd d (2008) Why youth (heart) social network sites: The role of networked publics in teenage social life. In: D. Buckingham (ed) Youth, identity, and digital media. Cambridge, MIT Press: 119–143. Coiro J et al. (2008). Central issues in new literacies and new literacies research. In: Coiro J et al. (eds) The handbook of research in new literacies. Mahwah NJ, Erlbaum: 1–22. FNBE (Finnish National Board of Education) (2004) Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2004. Helsinki, National Board of Education. Jaakkola M (2010) Uuden julkisuuden sääntöjä luomassa: Keskustelevat vuorovaikutussuhteet keinona sukupolvien välisen digitaalisen kuilun kaventamiseen. In: M. Meriranta (ed) Mediakasvatuksen käsikirja. Helsinki, Unipress: 37–62. Korkeamäki RL & Dreher MJ (2011) Early literacy practices and the Finnish national core curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies 43(1): 109–137. Kupari P et al. (2012) Enemmän iloa oppimiseen. Neljännen luokan oppilaiden lukutaito sekä matematiikan ja luonnontieteiden osaaminen. Kansainväliset PIRLS-ja TIMSS-tutkimukset Suomessa. University of Jyväskylä. Lefstein A (2010) More helpful as a problem than a solution. In: Howe C & Littleton K (eds) Educational Dialogues: Understanding and Promoting Productive Interaction. London, Routledge: 170–191. McVerry JG et al. (2015) Guiding students as they explore, build, and connect online. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 58(8): 632–635. Mercer N & Howe C (2012) Explaining the dialogic processes of teaching and learning: The value and potential of sociocultural theory. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction 1(1): 12–21. Mercer N & Littleton K (2007) Dialogue and the development of children’s thinking: A sociocultural approach. London: Routledge. Räisänen S & Korkeamäki R-L (2015) Implementing the Finnish literacy curriculum in a first-grade classroom. Classroom Discourse 6(2): 143–157. Salmela-Aro K et al. (In press) School burnout and engagement profiles among digital natives in Finland: A person-oriented approach. European Journal of Developmental Psychology. Schuck S & Kearney M (2006) Capturing learning through student-generated digital video. Australian Educational Computing 21(1): 15–20. Staarman JK & Mercer N (2010) The guided construction of knowledge: Talk between teachers and students. In: Littleton K et al. (eds) International handbook of psychology in education. Bingley UK, Emerald: 75–104. Strauss A & Corbin JM (1990) Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Sage Publications.
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