05 SES 11, Alternative Education and Preparing Young People at Risk for Employment
General description and research questions
The National Program Rotterdam South (NPRZ) is a long-term program for the neighborhoods located in the South of Rotterdam (The Netherlands), that focuses on upscaling deprived areas in the field of housing, work and education. The NPRZ program focuses on improving education performance and improving the connection between education and the labor market.
The starting point of the NPRZ is that school and work are the best guarantees for a better life. The NPRZ Education Monitor describes the development in the 'education' pillar, which addresses all forms of education. In this second edition of the monitor, the educational position of school-age children living in Rotterdam South is followed. This is done by using data from the Social Statistical File (SSB) that is available through the Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS) in which persons can be tracked in time. The monitor compares the districts in Rotterdam South with the rest of the city and with the four major cities in the Netherlands.
The aim of the research is to map the extent to which young people of Rotterdam South come to the average educational level of the four major cities, the aim of the program. In addition, the research provides insight into the background characteristics of the youth living there. This leads to the following research questions:
- Which background characteristics with regard to family situation (socially and economically) characterizes the study population?
- What are the educational achievements of students in education in Rotterdam South in the past 5 years?
An important part of the implementation plan is the creation of areas in which children and pupils get better and more education: Children's Zones (Wonderen, van & Mein, 2013). Schools form 'the beating heart' in these areas. Children go to school at a younger age, the schools are open longer and offer extra learning time. This is supplemented by practical care and support to children and families by neighbourhood teams and students, who work according to a frontline approach. With this practical help for families, an extra effort on Dutch language and general development is given. The children are encouraged to take the ‘right’ direction and in this way can improve their chances in education and later on the labor market.
Children’s Zones is based on the idea of the Harlem Children’s Zone in an area of Harlem, New York. It designs, funds, and operates a holistic system of education, social-services and community-building programs in Harlem to counter the negative influences of crime, drugs and poverty and help children complete college and go on to the job market (Whitehurst & Croft, 2010).
Many studies on extended school day have been conducted. In a review by Patall et al. (2010) they review on fifteen studies on the relationship between extended learning time and school achievements and followed pupils of 4 up to 18 years of age, which actually encompasses their entire school career. They examine how the relationship between extended learning time and better learning performance is. Although they observe that the research is often correlational, to where causal connections are difficult to made, Silva (2007), in a earlier study, found the following interesting conclusions on the effects of extended learning time: extended learning time can be especially useful for at risk pupils, for students whose parents have a low income and for disabled students. To be as effective as possible, schools should have an effective curriculum, teachers should give good instruction and there should be adequate class management. Therefore a local monitor leads to interesting outcomes to compare to various European contexts.
Research method The research consists of a monitor and two in-depth studies and relies on registration files that are made available by the Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS). In the monitor, the educational position of young people in Rotterdam South is determined per school year and compared with those in the rest of Rotterdam, in the four major cities and in the rest of the Netherlands. In an in-depth cohort analysis, cohorts of young people from a certain school year are followed in time. In a second in-depth study, an explanation is sought for the differences in educational performance between young people from Rotterdam South and young people in the rest of Rotterdam. Possible explanatory factors have been identified with the help of literature research. Subsequently, the influence of these individual, family, school and neighborhood factors was tested with multilevel analysis.
Results and conclusions The monitor confirms the educational disadvantages of pupils and young people in Rotterdam South. The cohort analysis shows that educational disadvantage increases in the course of the educational careers of young people in Rotterdam South. The educational position of pupils from Rotterdam South remains behind at almost all levels compared to the average of the four large cities and the rest of the Netherlands. Moreover, there is accumulation of arrears during their educational career. For example, pupils receive an average lower primary school advice and there is a relatively larger drop out in secondary education. In addition, it appears that VET students in Rotterdam South roll less into a paid job after obtaining a degree. Explanations for the disadvantages must be sought, for example, at the educational level of the parents and the psychological problems of the pupils. Scientific significance of this contribution The research provides knowledge about the growing up of youth in a disadvantaged area. The area in which the research is focused on, is characterized by heavy disadvantages in various areas like education, work, healthcare, crime, etc. Knowledge about how young people from a disadvantaged situation are encouraged to have a more promising position on the labor market contributes to research into metropolitan issues and school careers throughout Europe.
References Boom, J., A. L. Roode, P. van Wensveen & P. A. de Graaf (2016). Basismonitor Onderwijs Nationaal Programma Rotterdam Zuid 2016. Rotterdam: Risbo and OBI. Patall, E. A, H. Cooper & A.B. Allen (2010). Extending the School Day or School Year : A Systematic Review ofResearch (1985 -2009). DOI: 10.3102/0034654310377086. REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 2010 80: 401 Silva, E. (2007). On the clock; rethinking the way schools use time. Washington DC: Education Sector. Whitehurst, G. J. & M. Croft (2010). The Harlem Children's Zone, Promise Neighborhoods, and the Broader, Bolder Approach to Education. New York: Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings. Wonderen, R. van & Arnt Mein (2013) Quick scan functioneren wijkteams Children’s Zone. Utrecht: Verwey-Jonker Instituut.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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