29 SES 12, Pedagogies of Music Education
Musical experiences and learning take place in very diverse contexts (Wallersted & Lindgren, 2016). In spite of this reality, in most cases learning in and out of school are treated as separate and very different things, when the tendency should be the integration of all such learning since, as claimed by Folkestad (2006, p.135), formal and informal musical education processes "should not be regarded as a dichotomy but rather as two poles of a continuum". Observation of the learning situations in each of the contexts reveals differences but also interactions; hence, it is increasingly necessary for researchers to reach a understanding of different learning styles, broadening their outlook beyond formal educational spaces and tracking the elements of interaction in the different contexts if we want to avoid a gap between them (Buckinghman, 2008).
Therefore, the approach to educational processes demands a more holistic, organic and ecological vision that allows a better articulation of the interdependence between the subject and the contexts in which it develops (Barron, 2004, 2006). An ecological perspective of learning puts us before a conception of education as a social, historical and cultural phenomenon that spreads in different contexts of life and of socialization such as family, work, the media, etc., and which highlights the need to understand how learning outside of school is related to what is produced inside and vice versa.
Stauffer (2009) points out that it is necessary to look at the socio-musical practices of the environment in order to develop a more conscious Music Education that reconnects the schools with the communities and with the lived experiences, that puts the accent not only on what, how and why teach but also in who, for whom and where. Approaching music learning from an ecological perspective provides a space in which activity, materiality, networks, creative processes, identity construction, etc. are connected, generating a deeper understanding of our teaching practice (Barrett, 2012; Barron, 2006).
Although the interest in the activity of the younger children from a broader perspective than the school context is increasing (Welch, 2005, Barrett, 2009, 2012, Trevarthen and Malloch, 2012, Ilari and Habibi, 2015, Ilari, 2016), these studies are not very abundant, perhaps due to the difficulties of access to the private worlds of children and their families, that is why we consider that this research that covers the age group between 3 and 4 years is relevant
The aim of this study is to know the different ecologies of musical learning in which children live, from there to describe, analyze and understand the different learning environments to identify the elements that allow the development of integrative educational practices in the context school that address the knowledge and practices from different contexts.
The questions that arise around this aim are:
- What learnings are being produced from the musical experience in each of the contexts? How are they produced? What mediations promote them?
- How are the relationships between the participants in the musical experiences in each of the contexts?
- What social, cultural and political models are emerging from each of these contexts?
- What are the points of encounter and disagreement of the different contexts that are part of the learning ecologies?
In this research we have done a multicase study (Simons, 2009; Stake, 1995) to know and understand the musical learning ecologies of a group of 5 girls and 7 boys aged 3-4 who participated in activities develop in different educative contexts: a) formal (school), non-formal (Early Music Education workshop) and informal (family and media contexts). We have been able to access the private contexts of children through the of Gorgoritos’ project (gorgoritosartandmusic.com), a non-formal music education space. It is a project that emerges at the University of Granada and in which innovation, research and education are integrated to promote the development of Early Music Education. It is a collaborative and intergenerational space for music learning. Thus, the participation of families along with children in the musical experience promotes access to family contexts to address the study of informal musical learning of the youngest. Families who participate in the activity belong to the upper-middle class and they have a great interest in the musical activity that their children develop. They listen different musical styles at home and they allow children to visualize their favorite music in mobile phones or Ipad. The formal learning context corresponds to the school where 60% of the group of children attend. The rest of them attend to schools with very similar characteristics. In this school the musical activity developed is linked to active listening and expression through songs. The information was gathered using the following techniques in the different contexts: a) Observation of different contexts. b) Biographical interviews with teachers. c) Focus group with families. d) Interviews with children using exhibitions questions (Stake, 2010). e) Videos recorded by the families in which the children expressed themselves musically in their daily lives. f) Educational projects from the formal and non-formal educative contexts. As regards the ethical issues of the research, informed consent was obtained from all the participating families. Anonymity was respected at all times using pseudonyms. The negotiation and return of the findings to participants has been made continuously throughout the study process in meetings and information sessions that have allowed the triangulation of date.
The research allows us to investigate how the dialogue between the different contexts' music takes place, being the non-formal context the one that is serving as a hinge for relations and the understanding space of the sound imaginaries. A first finding shows that the musical contexts of young children are reciprocally permeable spaces. Children experience and perceive their environments in a holistic manner. Their favourite music is part of a common imaginary through which they recognize, find, censor or accept themselves and each other, both individually and at group level. They seem to use their musical expressions to build links and reflect their positions within the group in line with the findings reported by Green (2011) and Hargreaves, McDonald & Miell (2012). There is a significant dominance of music from mass media. Being able to sing a popular song may have allowed them to occupy a position of leadership. As reported by Frith (2001), it could be said that popular music in this context fulfils the function of managing feelings and creating identity, providing a way to manage the public and private emotional life of young children. We concur with Georgii-Hemming & Westvall (2010) on the need for schools and teachers to take into consideration the role played by media culture in the lives of young people, and this study shows that this concern should be extended to early childhood. Music education needs to include popular culture from a critical perspective in formal contexts. In this research, non-formal contexts were presented as a space that could facilitate the interaction between the familiar and the unfamiliar. Understanding musical activity in the daily lives of children suggests that it is necessary to rethink the bases of music education in early childhood, and based on that conception, design educational experiences that take into account all the elements of the contemporary sonic environment (Ocaña & Reyes, 2010)
BARRET, M.S. (2009). Sounding lives in and through music. A narrative inquiry of the ‘everyday’ musical engagement of a young child. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 7(2), 115-134. BARRET, M.S. (2012). Commentary: music learning and teaching in infancy and early childhood. In G.E. McPherson & G. Welch (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Music Education. Vol. 1. (pp. 227-228). New York: Oxford University Press. BARRON, B. (2006). Interest and self-sustained learning as catalysts of development: a learning ecologies perspective. Human Development, 49, 193-224. BUCKINGHAM, D. (2008). Más allá de la tecnología: aprendizaje infantil en la era de la cultura digital. Buenos Aries: Manantial. FOLKESTAD, G. (2006). Formal and informal learning situations or practices vs. formal and informal ways of learning. Bristish Journal of Music Education, 23(2), 135-145. GEORGII-HEMMING, E. & WESTVALL, M. (2010). Music education-a personal matter? Examining the current discourses of music education in Sweden. British Journal of Music Education, 27(1), 21-33. GREEN, L. (2011). Counterpoints: Music and Education. Learning, teaching and musical identity: voices across cultures. Bloomington, US: Indiana University Press. HARGREAVES, D.J., MCDONALD, R. & MIELL, D. (2012). Musical identities mediate musical development. In G.E. McPherson& G. Welch (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Music Education. Vol. 1. (pp. 125-142). New York: Oxford University Press. ILARI, B. (2016). Music in the early years: pathways into the social world. Research studies in music education, 38(1), 23-29. OCAÑA, A. & REYES, M.L. (2010). The Sonic Imagination of Children in Andalusia: A Musical Analysis of the TV Program "The Band". Comunicar, 35, 193-200. SIMONS, H. (2009). Case study research in practice. London: Sage Publications. STAKE, R.E. (1995). The art of case study. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. STAUFFER, S.L. (2009). Placing curriculum in music. En T.A. Regelsky & J.T. Gates (Eds.). Music education for changing times. (pp. 175-186). Dordrecht: Springer Pulbications. TREVARTHEN, C. & MALLOCH, P. (2012). Musicality and musical culture: sharing narratives of sound from early childhood. In G.E. McPherson & G. Welch (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Music Education. Vol. 1. (pp. 248-260). New York: Oxford University Press. WALLERSTED, C. & LINDGREN, M. (2016). Crossing the boundary from music outside to inside of school: contemporary pedagogical challenges. British Journal of Music Education, 33(2), 191-203.
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