27 SES 01 A, The Learner Developement : Pedagogical and / or Didactical Approaches
PISA has changed a lot in Germany, in education, as well as in educational research. The proponents of large scale assessment foster the establishment of educational standards and a nation-wide competitive evaluation of student performance. Their work stands in marked contrast to an increasing number of educational researchers who object standardization and fight for educational differentiation and equality of opportunity for heterogeneous student populations, teachers and schools. In our paper, we show how to combine the two approaches. The program we focus on is called “research on learner development and educational experience”, in German: “Bildungsgangforschung” (Trautmann 2004, Meyer 2008, Bertels & Bolte 2010). To be more specific: Bildungsgang researchdeals with a variety of topics:
- Analysis of learner development in relation to teaching and learning,
- Investigation of how students’ and teachers’ biographical background influences their schooling,
- Re-construction of how students and teachers negotiate meaning.
2 Theoretical Framework
Following the American educationist Havighurst, we consider children’s and adolescents’ developmental tasks a central concept of Bildungsgang research (Trautmann 2004). Dependent on that, we try to find out what makes sense for students when they experience education. Sense construction, therefore, is another important concept (Meyer 2007).
Our first central research topic then is the concept of “developmental tasks” as first formulated by Havighurst; he writes: „A developmental task is midway between an individual need and a societal demand. It assumes an active learner interacting with an active social environment. […] It is a task which arises at or about a certain period in the life of the individual, successful achievement of which leads to his happiness and to success with later tasks, while failure leads to unhappiness in the individual, disapproval in the society, and difficulty with later tasks” (Havighurst 1972, p. vi). Dreher and Dreher (1985) picked up on the work of Havighurst and did some more specific research focusing on the tasks of adolescents. Based on their work, and the work of Hericks and Spörlein (2001), Schenk (2005) formulated six developmental tasks which should be dealt with in classroom instruction. Students aged around 12 to 18 need …
- to know who they are and who they want to be (this task is called “self”),
- to build up their own moral values (“value”),
- to know what job they want to have and what they have to do for this (“vocation”),
- to understand how things in their daily lives work (“concepts”),
- to understand and accept their own bodies (“body”) and
- to know what kind of gender-specific and/or ethnic-specific role they have or would like to have (“role”).
The students’ educational career gets its objective shape by the institutions and organizational measures, which accompany them with their demands from first grade to graduation. But it is the subjects themselves with their self-regulatory power who realize the societal demands in their subjective vein.
If we were asked for analogous trends in the United States, we would refer to a recent publication of Hargreaves and Shirley (2009). We do not agree in all details, but we appreciate the mood and the emotions expressed. Change has to come; and what we aim at cannot be a state-steered production of standardized equality.
Bertels, N., & C. Bolte (2010). Occupational Orientation – A Foreign Concept to Chemistry Lessons. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the National Association for the Research on Science Education (NARST), Philadelphia, USA, March 2010. Bohnsack, R. (2003). Rekonstruktive Sozialforschung. Einführung in qualitative Methoden. Leske & Budrich, Opladen. 5th edition. Bolte, C. (2006). Evaluating Science Instruction by Using the Motivational Learning Environment Questionnaire. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), San Francisco, USA, April 2006. Bolte, C. (2001). How to Enhance Students´ Motivation and Ability to Communicate in Science Class-Discourse. In Behrendt, H., H. Dahncke, R. Duit, W. Gräber, M. Komorek, A. Kross, & P. Reiska (Eds.). Research in Science Education - Past, Present, and Future. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 277-282. Dreher, E. & M. Dreher (1985). Wahrnehmung und Bewältigung von Entwicklungsaufgaben im Jugendalter. In Oerter, R. (Ed.). Lebensbewältigung im Jugendalter. Weinheim. Hargreaves, A., & D. Shirley (2009). The Fourth Way: The inspiring future for educational change. Blackwell. Havighurst, R.J. (1972). Developmental Tasks and Education. Longman, New York. 3rd edition. Hericks, U., & E. Spoerlein (2001). Entwicklungsaufgaben in Fachunterricht und Lehrerbildung. – Eine Auseinandersetzung mit einem Zentralbegriff der Bildungsgangdidaktik. In U. Hericks, J. Keuffer, H.Ch. Kraeft, & I. Kunze (Eds). Bildungsgangdidaktik. Perspektiven für Fachunterricht und Lehrerbildung. Leske & Budrich, Opladen. Hannover, B., & U. Kessels (2004). Self-to-prototype matching as a strategy for making academic choices. Why high school students do not like math and science. Learning and Instruction 14, 51-67. Kessels, U., & B. Hannover (2002). Die Auswirkungen von Stereotypen über Schulfächer auf die Berufswahlabsichten Jugendlicher. In Spinath, B. & E. Heise (Eds.) Pädagogische Psychologie unter gewandelten gesellschaftlichen Bedingungen. Hamburg. Koller, H.-Ch. (2008, Ed.): Sinnkonstruktion und Bildungsgang. Zur Bedeutung individueller Sinnzuchreibungen im Kontext schulischer Lehr-Lern-Prozesse. Verlag Barbara Budrich. Opladen and Farmington Hills. Meyer, M.A. (2007). Didactics, Sense Making, and Educational Experience. In: European Educational Research Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 161 – 171. Meyer, M.A. (2008): Unterrichtsplanung aus der Perspektive der Bildungsgangforschung. In: Meyer/Prenzel/Hellekamps, Hrsg.: Perspektiven der Didaktik. Sonderheft 9 der Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 117 – 138. Meyer, M.A., & H. Meyer (2007): Wolfgang Klafki. Eine Didaktik für das 21. Jahrhundert?. Weinheim. Meyer, M.A., I. Kunze, & M. Trautmann (2007, Eds.): Schülerpartizipation im Englischunterricht. Eine empirische Untersuchung in der gymnasialen Oberstufe. Opladen. Schenk, B. (2005; Ed.): Bausteine einer Bildungsgangtheorie. Wiesbaden. Trautmann, M. (2004; Ed.): Entwicklungsaufgaben im Bildungsgang. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden.
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