31 SES 10 A, Beliefs and Practices in Teaching and Learning Languages
The paper addresses the phenomenon of code-switching in English as a foreign language (EFL) classes conducted in lower-secondary schools (ISCED 2) in the Czech Republic. Since the Czech Republic is a relatively monolingual country, the presented analysis intends to uncover some of the contextualization mechanisms underlying the switching between Czech (i.e. the mother tongue of the teachers and pupils) and English (i.e. the target language of the classes). More generally, the analysis reveals how the phenomenon of multilingualism is reflected in classroom interaction in the context of compulsory education in the Czech Republic, in which English is the first foreign language that the learners learn in schools.
In addition, the research aims to contribute to the understanding of expertise, which can be defined as “characteristics, skills, and knowledge that distinguish experts from novices and less experienced people”; experts “are consistently able to exhibit superior performance for representative tasks in a domain” (Ericsson, 2006, p. 3). In the context of foreign language teaching, one of such representative tasks is the participation in (and the controlling of) classroom interaction, which (in the case of a monolingual class) takes place in English and also in the mother tongue. Since the interactional order in everyday interactions can be revealed by conversation analysis (CA), the outcomes of this research can also be used to characterize expert performances in the context of foreign language teaching in a monolingual country (such as the Czech Republic).
Theoretically and methodologically the study builds on Auer’s sequential approach to code-switching (e.g. Auer, 1998; Auer & Eastman, 2010), which employs CA and views the instances of code-switching as potential contextualization cues.
The aim of the presented analysis was to uncover the contextualization mechanisms underlying conversational code-switching in teacher-student classroom interaction. The data comprised 13 videorecordings of EFL classes conducted by 13 expert teachers in lower-secondary schools in the Czech Republic. The analysis revealed how code-switching was used to contextualize (1) digressions, (2) repair work and (3) reiterations.
Auer, P. (1998). Introduction. Bilingual conversation revisited. In P. Auer (Ed.), Code-switching in conversation (pp. 1–24). London: Routledge. Auer, P., & Eastman, C. M. (2010). Code-switching. In J. Jaspers, J.-O. Östman, & J. Verschueren (Eds.), Society and language use (pp. 84–112). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. Drew, P., & Heritage, J. (1992). Analyzing talk at work: An introduction. In P. Drew & J. Heritage (Eds.), Talk at work. Interaction in institutional settings. (pp. 3–65). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ericsson, K. A. (2006). Introduction to Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance: Its development, organization and content. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich, & R. R. Hoffmann (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 3–19). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gumperz, J. J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gumperz, J. J. (1992). Contextualization and understanding. In A. Duranti & C. Goodwin (Eds.), Rethinking context. Language as an interactive phenomenon. (pp. 229–252). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. McHoul, A. W. (1978). The organization of turns at formal talk in the classroom. Language in Society, 7(02), 183–213. McHoul, A. W. (1990). The organization of repair in classroom talk. Language in Society, 19(03), 349–377. Píšová, M., Hanušová, S., Kostková, K., Janíková, V., Najvar, P., & Tůma, F. (2013). Učitel expert: jeho charakteristiky a determinanty profesního rozvoje (na pozadí cizojazyčné výuky). Brno: Masarykova univerzita. Tůma, F., Píšová, M., Najvar, P., & Janíková, V. (2014). Expert teachers’ interactive cognition: An analysis of stimulated recall. New Educational Review, 36(2), 289–299.
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