31 SES 04.5 PS, General Poster Session
General Poster Session
Most Western societies are aware of the diverse challenges and needs associated with the education of linguistically, socially and culturally diverse student bodies. Lacking competences in the majority language have been repeatedly identified to play a crucial role for success in the educational system as they are premises for comprehension of instruction and success in school examinations (Gogolin 2009). The acquisition of language competences depends on a variety of factors, including language contact and exposure, as well as on motivational factors (e.g. Lambert 1981). Social relations within the family, school and peer context allow for diverse learning opportunities by providing language input. These contexts shape students’ development of identity, their academic interests, knowledge, attitudes and motivation (e.g. Ecarius 2012). The individual social environment also allows access to social and cultural capital, which in turn strongly determines educational success (Bourdieu 1983; Coleman 1988).
The fact that the language input children receive has a major influence on their language development is without controversy. This has been repeatedly shown for young children and input received within the family (Goodman et al. 2008; Leseman et al. 2010). Although peer relations become more important in adolescence, they have hardly been studied with respect to their role in influencing the development of multilingual competences. Yet, empirical studies provide some tentative evidence on the impact of peers on individual language development. Early childhood studies have shown that children´s language achievement is positively related to their peers´ language abilities (e.g. Mashburn et al. 2009). Migrant students that have more native peers or spend more time speaking the majority language are more likely to improve their language skills (Carhill et al. 2008). Further, research indicates that peer relations have an impact on individual academic as well as language learning motivation, attitudes towards languages and ethnic identity which in turn are related to language achievement (Masgoret & Gardner 2003; Kindermann & Vollet 2014). Therefore, studying peer relations and peer influences seems promising to gain further insights into the processes of multilingual development.
However, the measurement of language competences and attitudes of peers is associated with several challenges, one of which being the fact that multilingual assessments are usually limited to classrooms or schools. Information on the language skills and attitudes of peers outside these contexts is typically assessed through the respondents´ ratings of their peers’ abilities, implying that the quality of this data highly depends on the quality of ratings. Findings suggest that the quality of judgements are mainly influenced by characteristics of person that judges, the person being judged, the relationship between the two and the trait being assessed (Bratko et al. 2006; Stipek 1981). Nevertheless, contrary findings related to these factors have been revealed. While a high convergence of self and other people’s ratings has been found for close friends, familiarity has as well been identified to lead to biased judgements (Siebert 2006). As such, the questions arise (1) whether ratings of students adequately capture multilingual competences and attitudes within their peer networks, and (2) which factors influence the validity of these ratings.
The present contribution addresses these questions by presenting results from a pilot study to validate respondents´ ratings of their peers’ language competences and attitudes. Using a subsample of monolingual and multilingual teenage students, the contribution investigates student’s ability to judge peers in different domains of language competences and other motivational traits. First, the question is addressed whether respondents’ judgements adequately reflect standardized test results and peers´ self-reported information. Second, background variables that may determine the quality of judgements are investigated with respect to their influence on students’ ratings.
Arens, A. K.; Yeung, A. S.; Hasselhorn, M. (2013): Native Language Self-Concept and Reading Self-Concept: Same or Different? In: The Journal of Experimental Education 82 (2), S. 229–252. Bourdieu, P. (1983): Ökonomisches Kapital, kulturelles Kapital, soziales Kapital. In: Kreckel, R. (Hg.): Soziale Ungleichheiten. Göttingen: Soziale Welt Sonderband 2, S. 183-198. Bratko, D.; Chamorro-Premuzicb, T.; Saks, Z. (2006): Personality and school performance: Incremental validity of self- and peer-ratings over intelligence. In: Personality and Individual Differences 41 (1), S. 131–142. Carhill, A.; Suarez-Orozco, C.; Paez, M. (2008): Explaining English Language Proficiency Among Adolescent Immigrant Students. In: American Educational Research Journal 45 (4), S. 1155–1179. Coleman, J. S. (1988): Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. In: American Journal of Sociology 94 (Supplement: Organizations and Institutions: Sociological and Economic Approaches to the Analysis of Social Structure), S. S95-S120. Ecarius, J.; Hößl, S. E.; Berg, A. (2012): Peergroup – Ressource oder biographische Gefährdung? In: Ecarius, J.; E. (Hrsg.): Jugend und Differenz. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, S. 161–181. Gogolin, I. 2009. Zweisprachigkeit und die Entwicklung bildungssprachlicher Fähigkeiten. In: Gogolin, I.; Neumann,U. (Ersg.): Streitfall Zweisprachigkeit. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag, S. 263-280. Goodman, J. C., Dale, P. S., & Li, P. 2008. Does frequency count? Parental input and the acquisition of vocabulary. Journal of Child Language, 35(3), 515-532. Kindermann, Thomas A.; Vollet, Justin W. (2014): Social networks within classroom ecologies: peer effects on students’ engagement in the context of relationships with teachers and parents. In: Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft 17 (S5), S. 135–151. Lambert, W. E. (1981): Bilingualism and Language Acquisition. In: Ann NY Acad Sci 379 (1 Native Langua), S. 9–22. Leseman, P. P. M., Scheele, A. F., & Mayo, A. Y. (2010): The home language environment of monolingual and bilingual children and their language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31(1), S. 117–140. Marsh, H. W.; Parker, J.; Barnes, J. (1985): Multidimensional Adolescent Self-Concepts: Their Relationship to Age, Sex, and Academic Measures. In American Educational Research Journal 22 (3), pp. 422–444. Masgoret, A.-M.; Gardner, R. C. (2003): Attitudes, Motivation, and Second Language Learning: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Conducted by Gardner and Associates. In: Language Learning 53 (1), S. 123–163. Mashburn, A. J., Justice, L. M., Downer, J. T., & Pianta, R. C. (2009). Peer effects on children’s language achievement during pre-kindergarten. Child Development, 80, 686-702. Siebert, Katrin (2006): Zum Einfluss von emotionaler Intelligenz auf die Übereinstimmung von Selbst- und Fremdeinschätzungen in der Persönlichkeitsforschung. Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg. Psychologisches Institut.
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