10 SES 05.5 PS, General Poster Session - NW 10
General Poster Session
Job satisfaction is one of the most common research topics in organizational psychology. A substantial body of literature has established that self-efficacy is related to job satisfaction. However, the magnitude of correlation varied. Some studies found a small relation. For example, Ozgun (2005) used a Turkish sample of 144 early childhood education teachers with experience less than 5 years and found a small correlation of r = .14. Similarly, Somech and Drzch-Zahavy (2000) sampled 251 elementary school teachers in Israel with a mean age of 34, and found that the correlation was small at r = .16. However, some other studies have found a moderate correlation. For example, Høigaard et al. (2012) examined this relation with 191 novice teachers with mean year of experience of 3.3 years, and found that the correlation was moderate at r = .30. Further examples of moderate correlation were found in an Italian sample by Moè et al. (2010) at r = .33, and by Van Maele and Houtte (2012) in teachers from Belgium (r = .33). The other studies reported a large correlation. These include Caprara et al. (2003) in a sample of 726 junior high school teachers from Italy with r = .50; Richter et al. (2013) in a sample of beginning teachers from Germany (r = .50), and 268 elementary school teachers from Greece by Stephanou et al. (2013; r = .77).
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between teacher job satisfaction and teacher efficacy by the analyses of the data from the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) Databases and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2011 (TIMSS 2011). These international databases were of good quality and had a number of advantages. First, the numbers of participants were large. Specifically, the TALIS 2008 study involved teachers from lower secondary schools in 23 countries. At least 200 schools per country and 20 teachers in each school, and had a total of over 70,000 teachers. TALIS 2013 was administered in 34 countries and randomly selected 200 lower secondary schools from each country, and then 20 teachers from each selected school, yielding a total exceeding 170,000 teachers. TIMSS 2011 database consists of grade 4 math, grade 8 math, and grade 8 science teacher data from 64 countries/economics. The public database had 18,490 grade 4 math teachers, 13,190 grade 8 math teachers, and 21,699 grade 8 science teachers. Second, researchers (Henson, 2002; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998) have suggested that the specificity or globality of teacher efficacy should be considered in the development of teacher efficacy scale. The TALIS 2013 database assessed different specificity of teacher efficacy (global teacher efficacy composed of efficacy in classroom management, efficacy in instruction, and efficacy in student engagement and self-efficacy in teaching math), making the examination of the effect of specificity of teacher efficacy possible. Third, TALIS 2008 and TIMSS 2011 used a single-item measure of job satisfaction, whereas TALIS 2013 used a multiple-item measure. The effect of single- versus multiple-item measure can thus be compared.
TALIS 2008 Teacher efficacy consists of four item (e.g., “I feel that I am making a significant educational difference in the lives of my students.”) Responses were on a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 for “strongly disagree” to 4 for “strongly agree.” The internal-consistency estimate of reliability, α, of scores for this scale was .75. Job satisfaction was measured with one item (“All in all, I am satisfied with my job.”) TALIS 2013 Teacher self-efficacy consists of three subscales, efficacy in classroom management, in instruction and in student engagement. Each subscale consists of four items. Responses were on a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 for “not at all” to 4 for “a lot.” The reliability for these scales were .84, .79, and .83, respectively. TALIS 2013 also measure teacher efficacy in math by four item and the reliability for this scale was .74. Job satisfaction consists of two subscales: satisfaction with current work environment and satisfaction with profession. Each subscale was measured by four items: The internal-consistency estimate of reliability, α, of scores for these two subscales were .78 and .82, respectively. The four response categories were 1 for “strongly disagree”, 2 for “disagree”, 3 for “agree” and 4 for “strongly agree” TIMSS 2011 Five items were used to assess Grade 4 and 8 math teacher sense of efficacy. Responses were on a 3-point Likert scale, ranging from “not confident” to “very confident.” The internal-consistency estimate of reliability, α, of scores for this scale was .77 for grade 4 math teachers and .74 for grade 8 math teachers. For Grade 8 science teacher, the teacher sense of efficacy was measured by five items. The internal-consistency estimate of reliability, α, of scores for this scale was .75. Job satisfaction was measured by six items. The internal-consistency estimate of reliability, α, of scores for grade 4 math teachers was .69, .71 for grade 8 math teachers, and .70 for grade 8 science teachers.
The preliminary analyses showed that the correlation between teacher self-efficacy and job satisfaction for TALIS 2008 was .47 (N=69,306), an about large effect size based on Cohen (1992) criterion. The correlations ranged from .15 to .25, from small to moderate for TALIS 2013. The correlations between job satisfaction and teacher efficacy scales with different specificity were comparable. The correlation between teacher self-efficacy and job satisfaction for TIMSS 2011 was .22 for grade 4 math teachers (N=12,567), .26 for grade 8 math teachers (N=11,911), and .21 for grade 8 science teachers (N=18,965). In summary, the correlations for TIMSS 2011 were about moderate. Hierarchical linear models will be conducted in the near future to examine the effects of country and culture on the relation between teacher efficacy and job satisfaction.
Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Borgogni, L., Petitta, L., & Rubinacci, A. (2003). Teachers', school staff's and parents' efficacy beliefs as determinants of attitudes toward school. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 18, 15-31. doi:10.1007/BF03173601 Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155 Henson, R. K. (2002). From Adolescent angst to adulthood: Substantive implications and measurement dilemmas in the development of teacher efficacy research. Educational Psychologist, 37, 137-150. doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3703_1 Høigaard, R., Giske, R., & Sundsli, K. (2012). Newly qualified teachers’ work engagement and teacher efficacy influences on job satisfaction, burnout, and the intention to quit. European Journal of Teacher Education, 35, 347-357. doi:10.1080/02619768.2011.633993 Moè, A., Pazzaglia, F., & Ronconi, L. (2010). When being able is not enough. The combined value of positive affect and self-efficacy for job satisfaction in teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1145-1153. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2010.02.010 Ozgun, O. (2005). The relationship of novice Turkish early childhood education teachers' professional needs, experiences, efficacy beliefs, school climate for promoting early childhood learning, and job satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3207102) Somech, A., & Drach-Zahavy, A. (2000). Understanding extra-role behavior in schools: The relationships between job satisfaction, sense of efficacy and teachers' extra-role behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 649-659. doi:10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00012-3 Stephanou, G., Gkavras, G., & Doulkeridou, M. (2013). The role of teachers' self- and collective-efficacy beliefs on their job satisfaction and experienced emotions in school. Psychology, 4, 268-278. doi:10.4236/psych.2013.43A040 Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68, 202-248. doi:10.3102/00346543068002202 Van Maele, D., & Van Houtte, M. (2012). The role of teacher and faculty trust in forming teachers' job satisfaction: Do years of experience make a difference? Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 879-889. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2012.04.001
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
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Network 10. Teacher Education Research
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Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
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Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
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Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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