10 SES 11 E, Autonomy, Dialogue and the Psychosocial
The Educational Sector of Eric Berne’s Transactional Analysis can be considered as effective tool for a modern "Person-centred Pedagogy” that aims to promote Education to Dialogue and Relational Skills as necessary competences to meet the expectations of the Learning Society.
The acquisition of Relational Skills is one of the main goals of an Educational System that aims at promoting non-violent, inclusive and participative societies. It includes the ability of managing an efficient communication, which implies situations of communicative reciprocity, and is at the same time an instrument for preventing and transforming conflicts. Aim of this study is to outline some conceptual and methodological signposts for promoting Education to Dialogue from the point of view of Educational Transactional Analysis (from now on shortened with the acronym „ETA“), whose Philosophy in promoting efficient communicative skills does respond to the educational needs of post-modern man. The purpose is also to offering to Teacher Education a first conceptual framework for developing programmes and proposals aimed at empowering communicative attitudes and skills.
On the basis of the Philosophy of E. Berne (Berne 1964) and of Authors who developed his Philosophy in the last decades (Barrow & Newton 2016 – Temple 2007) in Educational Environments, ETA can be considered a conceptual and practical framework because of its simple language and its link in the Personalism, Phenomenology and Existentialism (Romanini M. T., 2008).
The Research seeks to answer the Question: Is there any application of the Philosophy and Concepts of Berne’s Transactional Analysis in Education? The Research investigates the instruments offered by the ETA, both in its existential aspect (as a Person-Centred Philosophy) and in its practic concepts also considering the actual development of ETA, expecially the cases where ETA has been intruduced in the Education of the Student-Teachers with significant outcomes. The Research completes with drowing a purpositive design of appropriated Teacher Education Programme.
As a theoric approach the fundamental framework of the theory of Berne, - the partitioning of the personality in three Ego-States (Parent, Adult, -and Child Ego-State) and their interaction during the communicative act - remains also in Educational Context. Teachers trained with ETA method theoretically know the basic scheme and the various Transactions (Transaction is the smallest unit of communication) that block communication. Progressively the Teachers apply the pattern to situational analysis, in which the behaviours are described and the classical pattern is traced by identifying the Ego-States involved in the specific Transaction. From the Diagnosis/Description (We prefer the Expression “Description” instead of “Diagnosis”, currently used in the environment of Theraphy and Counselling, to distinguishing clearly the Educational from the Therapeutic Context) of the involved Ego-States the Teaching-team make proposals to activate the „Adult Ego-State“ (instance of the logic, active listening, consciousness and mediation between the Parent -and Child Instances) of the stakeholders, and their Life-Positions. Educators choose the necessary Strokes to enhance the Need of Recognition that submits every umproductive behaviour. The milestone of E. Berne’s Philosophy in fact is that blocked-situations can be changed. The Contracting follows the Description of the Transactions, and allows to design what and how the stakeholders want to change. Berne defined the “Contractual Approach” 1966; He indicated to explicitly clarify: content, timing, methods, and objectives. The Contract is bilateral, and both respondents must clarify themselves the reason for they are contracting, even if their roles are different. In Educational context are possible only Contracts of "Social Control", in which the goal is to energize the instance of the Adult/Ego-State in order to solve the problem.
The Research origins from the Problem that the post-modern man no longer has shared educational paradigms as it was in the past, and the subjective cultural positions often prevent the transmission of knowledge. Education to Dialogue is therefore necessary, but it has to be promoted through easy and reasonable patterns. The work starts from the assumption that focusing on student, families and teachers in their integrity of Person is the most opportune choice in a time in which the attention of educational policies in general is more focused on the acquisition of technical competences than on relational skills. The Hypothesis is that ETA's concepts satisfy the request of easy applicability and concreteness, are grounded in the Philosophy of 20th Century and can be the model to move away from behaviors far from a dialogic and inclusive vision. The Research in the first section aims to identify the theoretical contribution that E. Berne's Theory and the subsequent elaborations of the Authors who have deepened the theory, provide to the world of Education by Literacy Review; moreover it identifies its essential points as the basis for any application in the educational environment in distinguishing the Educational application from the clinical ones. In this section the evidence of the link between ETA and grounded philosophic, social and psychologic Theories of the 20th Century is described. In the second section the Research examines some european cases where ETA has been applied to teacher education with good acceptance and admissible scientific relevance and how teacher education with ETA has been structured. The last section outlines concrete basic proposals for a training course for teacher education. The specific environment of which this work is slight part is Teacher Education, but every field in which Education to Dialogue is milestone can be intrested.
This Research states that Education to Dialogue with its Relational Skills is a priority in Teacher Education, - priority due to the quickly transformations and to the existential educational crisis that characterize our times-, and that ETA's concepts are appropriate proposal to promote it. The results show that it is also easily achievable with very manageable concepts and language, and with brief training. This research has potentially strong research policy connection. It can contribute to educational policy enriching Teachers profession's Quality Standard and Curricula development for future Teacher Education. Research's outcomes will contribute to provide to student/teachers dialogical skills necessary in the educational dialogue with pupils, families and collegues as well, according to principles of Personalism.
ADAMS G. (1991) Transactional analysis in education. Hong Kong BARROW G. NEWTON T., (2016) Educational TA, an International Guide to Theory and Practice, London and New York BERNE E., (1972) What do you say after you say hello?, New York BERNE, E. (1953) Concerning the nature of communication, The Psychiatric Quarterly January 1953, Volume 27, Issue 1-4, pp 185-198 BERNE, E. (1964) Games people play: the psychology of human relationship, New York BERNE, E., (1966) Principles of Group Treatment, New York BOBBIO A. (2012) (a cura di) Pedagogia del dialogo e relazione di aiuto. Teoria, azioni, esperienze. Armando Ed., Roma CLARKE J. I. (1998) The synergistic use of five transactional analysis concepts by educators. Transactional Analysis Journal, 26, 214-219, 1996 Education, HARRIS A. T., (1969) I'm OK, You're Ok, New York. LOOMIS M. (1990) Contracting for change. Transactional Analysis Journal, vol XII, n. 1,1982 ; trad.it a cura di M.Magnino "I contratti di cambiamento" in "Neopsiche" anno 8, n, °14, dicembre 1990, pages 21-26 MASTROMARINO R., SCOLIERE M., (1999) Introduzione all'analisi Transazionale. Il modello 101, IFREP Roma NICOLE, P., (2002) Les différents contrats, in Nicole Pierre's book Pratique de l'Analyse Transactionelle dans la Classe, published by ESF éditeur, pages 60-9, with additional material from pages 70-6. PADERBORN, ed., (1999) Erlaubnis zum Wachsen. Beitraege aus der Arbeit mit Transaktionsanalyse in Paedagogik und Erwachsenenbildung [Permission to grow: Articles about working with TA in education for kids and adults], Paderborn: Junfermann Verlag. PAVAN, A., Ripensare nella crisi la cultura della formazione, Armando, Roma 2013, pag. 62 PERRENOUD, P., Enseigner des savoirs ou développer des compétences : l'école entre deux paradigmes, Faculté de psychologie et des sciences de l'éducation,Université de Genève, 1995 ROMANINI M. T., (2008) Costruirsi persona, Ed. La Vita Felice, 2 voll., Milano ROSSI CASSOTTANA O., (2010) Alla ricerca di una rinnovata dimensione progettuale della personalità tra percorsi scolastici ed esistenziali, Armando, Roma TEMPLE S., (1998b), Teaching with TA, in in T. Laes, MK. Lerkkanen & E. Varis (Eds), Educational TA for teachers, (Jyväskylä Studies in Education, Psychology and Social Research Rep. No 142 TEMPLE, S. (2007). Das Functional-Fluency-Modell in der Pädagogik. Zeitschrift für Transaktionsanalyse 1, 76-88. TORRESAN, P., (2015) Transactional Analysis's motivational model as a frame of the observation and evaluation of the educational and training paths, Santa Monica college, CA, in Academia
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