10 SES 07 B, Research on Programmes and Pedagogical Approaches in Teacher Education
General description on research questions, objectives and theoretical framework.
In Spain there is a widespread disenchantment when referring to the initial teacher training. Although the Spanish Educational System is progressing and adapting, to a greater or lesser extent, to the demands of society, knowledge and the globalized world in which we live, teacher training continues to be immobilized and unattractive (Tribo, 2008; Muñoz-Fernández, Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Luque-Vílchez, 2019). The traditional training model in which there is a predominance of theory over practice, which has always prevailed in the initial teacher training programs (Moral, 1998), is still maintained today (ANECA, 2015). Faced with this reality, the teacher training plans, specifically, the teacher training plans of Andalusia (2014, 2016), demand a different type of initial training. The university institution, currently represented at the Conference of Deans of all Spanish Schools of Education (Conference of Deans, 2018), is an example of a search for new approaches to solve the problems of teacher training in Spain.
Although the proposals of the Deans Conference (2017) seek alternatives to transform this very disappointing reality, it proposes structural changes and not internal changes to transform the programs of initial teacher training from within and starting from its base. Specifically, these proposals for change do not begin by analyzing the possibilities of modification of the students' practicum in the initial teacher training programs from their base, in order to make it more effective and aimed at the acquisition of professional teaching competences (Moral-Santaella, 2019 ).
Specifically, the practicum model that is followed in the Faculty of Education of Granada adopts a model of reflection on practice (Calderhead, 1992; Zeichner, 1996), but with some inconsistencies, since it maintains a great dissociation between the theory and the practice and, on the other hand, this model is little focused on the acquisition of professional teaching skills. There is no guide to carry out the reflection on the practice, so the students in initial teacher training elaborate a diary and reflective memory, with minimum indications of the aspects to observe and with a very open format that fosters a reflective spontaneity .
Faced with this situation, the purpose of this research is to propose a new form of reflective practice during the practicum period, a guided reflective practice to promote the acquisition of professional teaching skills. Therefore, the hypothesis that gives foundation to this work lies in considering that this reflection on the practice, to be effective, must be done in a guided manner. This reflection should allow students of the initial teacher training programs to become experts in the domain of teachers' professional competences. with materials focused on a reflection on practice such as those developed by Pollard (2014), Capel, Leask and Younie (2016), Gravells (2017) or Moral-Santaella (2018).
Methods/methodology Based on this working hypothesis, the purpose of this research is to test a model of guided reflective practice, as opposed to the open reflection model that is currently used in the Faculty of Education of Granada. For this reason, the methodological design of our research is experimental because it aims to test the effectiveness of this new practice model based on a guided reflection. Sample - The sample used to test this new model of practicum, consists of two experimental groups of students of the first practicum of Primary Education, and two control groups of the first practicum of Primary Education. Students of experimental group have used the guided reflection material for acquisition of professional teaching competences (Moral-Santaella, 2018). Material- To test the working hypothesis, a material has been constructed to guide the reflection (Moral-Santaella, 2018). This material has been used by the two experimental groups. In addition, during the practicum period in these two experimental groups, the practicum supervisors of the Faculty of Education of Granada has made a follow-up of the reflective process developed in the experimental groups. Data collection and analysis procedure - To verify the degree to which professional skills are achieved (Moral-Santaella, 2019) using the material designed for guided reflection during the practicum period (Moral-Santaella, 2018) , a test that collects the degree of competence reached during the practicum period has been used. This test allows to verify to what extent students who have used a reflective material and have maintained a guided reflection can be considered more "expert" or competent than students who have not followed this guided reflection material. The data will be analyzed following the approaches of comparative analysis between experts and novices (Chi, 2006; Hoffman and Lintern, 2006).
Expected outcomes / results The data collection has finished in the month of December, for this reason the data analysis process is still underway. It is assumed that the collected data will show differences in the knowledge structure of the students of experimental and control groups. Depending on the data collected we can verify the effectiveness or not of the guided reflection material for carrying out the practices developed (Moral-Santaella, 2018), and prove or not the hypothesis that to achieve an adequate reflection that allows the acquisition of the professional teacher competencies, the initial teacher training programs require a process of reflection on guided practice that directs the students' attention to the different elements that make up the competences for an adequate development of teaching-learning processes.
References ANECA (Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y la Acreditación) (2015). Grado de Educación Primaria (Verificado). Madrid: Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de Calidad y la Acreditación. BOJA (Boletín Oficial de la Junta de Andalucía) (2013). DECRETO 93/2013. Formación inicial y permanente del profesorado. Sevilla: Consejería de Educación. Junta de Andalucía. BOJA (Boletín Oficial de La Junta de Andalucía) (2014). II Plan Andaluz de Formación Permanente del Profesorado. Sevilla: Consejería Educación. Junta de Andalucía. Calderhead, J. (1992). The role of reflection in learning to teach. En Valli (Ed.), Reflective Teacher Education, pp. 139-149. New York. Publications of New York State University. Capel, S., Leask, M and Younie, S. (2016). Learning to teach in the secondary school. London. Routledge. Chi, M. (2006). Laboratory methods for assessing expert’s and novices’ knowledge. En K. Ericsson, N. Charnes, P. Feltovich y R. Hoffman (Eds.). Expertise and expert performance 167-184. Cambridge. Unversity-Press. Conferencia de Decanos en Educación (2017). Modelo de acceso a la profesión docente actual versus MIR docente. Santiago de Compostela. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela. Consejería Educación (2018). Programa de formación profesorado en escuelas mentoras. Sevilla: Junta de Andalucía, Consejería de Educación. Gravells, A. (2017). Principles and practices of teaching. London. SAGE. Hoffman, R. Y Lintern, G. (2006). Eliciting and representing the knwoledge of expert. En K. Ericsson, N. Charnes, P. Feltovich y R. Hoffman (Eds.). Expertise and expert performance, pp. 203-222. Cambridge. University Press. Moral Santaella, C. (2018). Guía para el prácticum en la Educación infantil, primaria y secundaria. Granada. Publicaciones Técnicas Avicam. Moral Santaella, C. (2019). Competencias para el diseño y desarrollo de experiencias de aprendizaje significativas en la formación del profesorado. Madrid. Síntesis. Muñoz Fernández, A., Rodríguez Gutiérrez, P. Luque Vílchez, M. (2019). La formación inicial del profesorado de Educación Secundaria en España. Revista Educación XX1, 22 (1). Pollard, A. (2014). Reflective teaching in schools. London. Bloonsbury. Tribó, G. (2018). El nuevo perfil profesional de los profesores de secundaria. Educación XX1, 11. Zeichner, K. (1996). Teachers as reflective practitioners. En K. Zeichner, S. Melnic y M. L. Gómez, Eds, Currrent of reforms in preservice teacher education, pp. 199-214. New York. Teachers College Press.
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