04 SES 06 B, Coaching, Professional Development and Inclusive Education
Inclusive education is an important issue in the Netherlands and other countries in and outside Europe. In august 2014, the Dutch government implemented new legislation that promotes inclusive education. Instead of placing children in special schools for children with, for example externalising problem behaviour, children are welcomed in regular classes and are supported to participate in all aspects of daily life in school. Nevertheless, many children in Dutch education cope with externalising problems. More than 13% of the Dutch students show subclinical and clinical levels of behaviour problems, like aggressive behaviour, such as fighting, anger, lying and stealing. Also 24% of the Dutch students struggle with subclinical and clinical levels of hyperactivity problems (HBSC, 2014), such as a lack of concentration, restlessness and impulsivity. Such problems can impact student’s academic prognoses, as students with externalising behaviour are more likely to develop delays in academic achievement and motivation, which may also impact their self-esteem (Van Lier, Vitaro, Barker, Brendgen, Tremblay, & Boivin, 2012). Given these adverse consequences of externalising behaviour problems, it is important to tackle such problems of students in primary education.
Research reports that teachers show difficulties in dealing with students’ externalising behaviour (Böger et al., 2015; Spilt & Koomen, 2009). This can lead to problems in teacher-student interaction and results in lower levels of teacher-student relationship quality (Spilt, Koomen, & Mantzicopoulos, 2010). Interactions with students with externalising behaviour are characterised by less sensitive and more controlling teacher behaviour than interactions with students without externalising behaviour (Rimm-Kaufmann, Early, Cox, Saluja, Pianta, & Bradley, 2002). Recent observational research shows that interactions with children with externalising behaviour were less supportive, warm and positive, more defensive, unfriendly and sombre than interactions with children without externalising behaviour (Roorda, Koomen, Spilt, Thijs, & Oort, 2013). Such relations may in turn have negative consequences for the child’s behavioural development, which may result in a vicious cycle of dysfunctional interaction patterns. An intervention focusing on improving the teacher-student relationship may promote the development of a close, non-conflictual relationship between teacher and a student with externalizing behaviour problems.
To improve the teacher-student relationship we developed an intervention called Multi-Method Coaching. MMC is partly based on the conceptual model for teacher-student relationships by Pianta, Hamre and Stuhlman (2003). They describe four components of the teacher-student relationship: teacher and student features (gender, temperament and personality), perceptions and beliefs about the relationship, information exchange processes or interaction patterns, and external influences. It is important to focus on the mental representation of the relationship and the interaction patterns between teacher and student. An intervention focussed on these components is most likely to reduce student externalsing behaviour and to improve the teacher-student relationship. MMC consist of three different methods; relationship-focused reflection program (RFRP-program), developed by Spilt, Koomen, Thijs & Van der Leij (2012), Video Coaching (Fukkink, Trienekens, & Kramer, 2011), and Synchronous Video Coaching (Coninx, Kreijns, & Jochems, 2012). Effects of this intervention are studied in the Key2Teach Study.
The main aim of this study is to investigate whether Multi-Method Coaching (MMC) of teachers has a positive effect on teacher-student interactions, teacher and student outcomes. In this presentation we briefly explain the theoretical framework underpinning the research and the method of the intervention Multi Method Coaching. The focus for the presentation will be on the methodology and the results of MMC on teacher-student relationship and students’ externalising behaviour. The main research question is: does MMC has a positive effect on students’ externalising behaviour problems?
Böger, S., Broek, van den, V., Cauwenberghe, C., Heijkamp, W., Laman, M., Oepkes, H., Sluis, K., Visser, M., Wick-Campman, T., Wijnands, F. (2015). Onderwijsinspectie. De Staat van het Onderwijs: Onderwijsverslag 2013/2014. Den Haag: Xerox/OBT Coninx, N., Kreijns, K., & Jochems, W. (2012). The use of keywords for delivering immediate performance feedback on teacher competence development. European Journal of Teacher Education, 1-19. Fukkink, R. G., Trienekens, N., & Kramer, L. J. C. (2011). Video Feedback in education and training: Putting learning in the picture. Educational Psychology Review, 23, 45-63. Goodman R (2001) Psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1337-1345. Looze, M. de, Dorsselaer, S. van, Roos, S., de, Verdurmen, J., Stevens, G., Gommans, R., Bon-Martens, M. van, Bogt, T. ter & Vollebergh, W. (2014). HBSC (Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children) 2013 Gezondheid, welzijn en opvoeding van jongeren in Nederland. Utrecht: Universiteit Utrecht. Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B. K., & Stuhlman, M. (2003). Relationships between teachers and children. In W. Reynolds & G. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology (pp. 199-234). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Rimm-Kaufmann, S. E., Early, D. M., Cox, M. J., Saluja, G., Pianta, R. C., Bradley, R. H., e.a. (2002). Early behavioral attributes and teachers’ sensitivity as predictors of competent behavior in the kindergarten classroom. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 451-470. Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. M., Thijs, J. T., & Oort, F. J. (2013). Interpersonal behaviors and complementarity in interactions between teachers and kindergartners with a variety of externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Journal of School Psychology, 51, 143-158. Spilt, J. L., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2009). Widening the view on teacher-child relationships: Teachers’ narratives concerning disruptive versus non-disruptive children. School Psychology Review, 38, 86-101. Spilt, J.L., Koomen, H.M.Y., & P. Mantzicopoulos (2010). Young children's perceptions of teacher‐child relationships: an evaluation of two instruments and the role of child gender in kindergarten. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31 (6), 428-438. Spilt, J. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., & Thijs, J. M., & Leij, A. van der (2012). Supporting teachers’ relationships with disruptive children: the potential of relationship-focused reflection. Attachment & Human Development, 14, 305-318. Van Lier, P. A. C., Vitaro, F., Barker, E.D., Brendgen, M., Tremblay, R. E., & Boivin, M. (2012). Peer Victimization, Poor Academic Achievement, and the Link Between Childhood Externalizing and Internalizing Problems. Child Development, 83, 5, 1775-1788.
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