03 SES 13 A, Curriculum and Information Technology
The digital transformation is taking place in almost all areas of private and public life. In the past 20 years technologies have particularly occurred in an increasing digitization, datafication, formalization, algorithmization and scalability of our society (Allert, 2019). However, it is less the information and communication technologies themselves that change society. It is rather the type of usage which affects everyday culture and demands new user skills. In the education system these developments are reflected in educational policy decisions as well as reform discussions in the involved scientific disciplines. As a result, a number of international and national education policy strategy papers and position papers have emerged (e.g. Redecker, 2017; KMK, 2016; BMBF, 2016) as well as a huge number of studies about digitization in education systems (e.g. Fraillon et al., 2019). The recommendations of the policy papers as well as the empirical findings point to the key role of teacher education. Accordingly, teachers deserve special attention as a kind of digital multipliers. In the end "knowledge and ability (...) form central components of professional competence from teachers” (Baumert & Kunter, 2006, p. 481). This position is also consistent with the two relevant theoretical approaches. On the one hand it is the interdisciplinary as well as domain-specific discourse on the professional competencies of PE teachers (e.g. Baumert & Kunter, 2006). Closely related to this is the question which domain-specific and curricular knowledge as well as (sport-)practical skills PE teachers need in order to meet the demands of the subject. On the other hand there is the perspective of teaching and learning in PE under the special requirements of digitization. This refers to the digital subject-related competencies, which are internationally received in the context of the concept of digital literacy. As a result of a systematic review Bieza (2020) summarizes that the existing approaches of digital approaches to digital literacy focus on the dimensions of the use of digital technologies (usage of new technologies; utilization of technological potential), the critical use of digital technologies and resources (information and media literacy; technology literacy) and the necessary skills for everyday life (social skills; security and responsibility). Following the position paper of the Gesellschaft für Fachdidaktik (GFD, 2018), digitization always requires a professional subject-related point of reference. Accordingly, this present study focusses on the first phase of PE Teacher Education. The research question is how the documents from PE teacher study programs correspond to the keywords in education policy and empirical findings.
The present study is following a structuring content analysis according to Mayring (2015). It results in an interweaving approach of normative-deductive analysis of the digitalization discourse and a summative analysis of the intended PE teacher training curricula. In this context the module handbooks (MHB) and teacher examination, subject examination, study and examination regulations (summarized in examination regulations [ER]) of 56 German PE teacher training institutions were analyzed. The focus is on the content, the qualification goals/competencies as well as the learning objectives. All analyzed documents are part of accredited study programs. The credibility of the documents can therefore be rated as very high. The universities were selected via the German web portal www.studienwahl.de, the information of the German Association of Sports Teachers (DSLV) and the German Association for Sports Science (dvs). The data collection was finished in October 2019). The relevant institutions of academic PE teacher education included universities (nT1 = 50) and colleges of education (nT2 = 6). The sample included 39 bachelor's degree programs, 38 master's degree programs as well as 20 study programs with the qualification goal state examination. The documents referred to the sports-related study programs with the orientation on elementary school, secondary level I and secondary level II. Due to the small number of documents, the study programs focusing on special pedagogy and vocational college were not included in the analyses. A total number of 2846 pages of material were reviewed. In accordance to the research question, a multistage search and selection procedure was used to select relevant keywords from existing national and international education policy strategy and position papers as well as action frameworks and empirical findings (BMBF, 2016; Redecker, 2017; KMK, 2016; GFD, 2018; Fraillon et al., 2019). Based on these keywords, a deductive category system with three categories (competencies, methods, infrastructure) and 39 subcategories (e.g. media competence, blended learning, learning management systems) was developed.
44 percent (nT1 = 25; nT2 = 7) of the analyzed documents are younger than three years. 34.6 percent (nT1 = 24; nT2 = 2) of these documents are between three and six years old. Twelve percent (nT1 = 9; nT2 = 0) are older than six years. For 10.4 percent (nT1 = 8; nT2 = 0) of the text material, the period of origin could not be determined due to missing information. The frequency-analytical examination of the text material showed that at 21 academic institutions (nT1 = 19; nT2 = 2) none of the categories of the deductive category system could be assigned. In addition, 18 of 40 subcategories were not found in any of the analyzed MHBs or ERs. Furthermore, there are nine additional subcategories that remained without relevant mention in terms of content after the first reduction. From the category ‘competencies’ only the subcategory ‘media competence’ could be assigned. The mentions were homogeneously distributed among the different school-related qualification goals. In the category ‘methods’ the most frequently named subcategory is 'media pedagogy' (nA1 = 57; nT2 = 8). However, the mentions were mainly for the PE study programs for elementary school and lower secondary school. The majority of the mentions can also be found in the documents of the PE teacher study programs of colleges of education (nT1 = 3; nT2 = 57). In the category ‘infrastructure’ the subcategory 'Digital' had the most frequent mentions. In view of the research question in the documents of PE teacher study digital content is only used to a very limited level. This means that the education policy recommendations and the empirical evidence on education in the digital world are largely ignored. In fact, the level of abstraction remains at a general domain-unspecific level of media literacy.
Allert, H. (2019). Kritische Bestandsaufnahme: Bildungsverständnis und Digitalisierung [Critical stocktaking: Understanding education and digitization]. Synergie – Fachmagazin für Digitalisierung in der Lehre, 6, 16-19. Baumert, J. & Kunter, M. (2006). Stichwort professionelle Kompetenz von Lehrkräften [Keyword professional competence of teachers]. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 9 (4), 469-520. Bieza, K. E. (2020). Digital Literacy: Concept and Definition. International Journal of Smart Education and Urban Society, 11(2), 1-15. Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung [BMBF] (2016). Bildungsoffensive für die digitale Wissensgesellschaft. Strategie des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung [Education offensive for the digital knowledge society. Strategy of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research]. Berlin: BMBF. Fraillon, J., Ainley, J., Schulz, W., Friedman, T. & Duckworth, D. (2020). Preparing for Life in a Digital World. IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2018 International Report. SpringerOpen. Gesellschaft für Fachdidaktik (GFD). (2018). Fachliche Bildung in der digitalen Welt. Positionspapier der Gesellschaft für Fachdidaktik [Subject-specific education in the digital world. Position paper of the Society for Subject Didactics.]. Accessed 01/13/2021 under https://bit.ly/3cwnABl Mayring, P. (2015). Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse: Grundlagen und Techniken [Qualitative Content Analysis: Basics and Techniques]. Weinheim: Beltz. Redecker, C. (2017). European Framework for the Digital Competence of Educators. DigCompEdu. Accessed 01/10/2021 under http://bit.ly/2UcBHRH
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