02 SES 10 C, Permeability, Social Disparities and Racial Stratification
Since two decades, educational policymakers are discussing how to respond on the social selectivity of educational systems. In this context, they often highlight the potential of promoting permeability not only but also in vocational education and training systems, with the goal of decreasing the effect of the social background on the educational success (e.g. Frommberger, 2009). Plausible assumptions indicates this correlation, however, empirical evidence for this relationship is nearly inexistent (c.f. Bellenberg et al, 2004; Barabasch & Deitmer. 2011). Systematic overviews or meta-analysis are lacking.
For Switzerland, the permeability between the VET-System on the secondary II level and Universities of Applied Sciences are largely unexplored. The aim of this paper is to analyze the potential of permeability between VET and Universities to ask whether the increase of permeability decreases the social selectivity regarding educational participation and achievement of degrees, or not.
On the basis of the Swiss longitudinal study TREE (Transitions from Education to Employment, 2000-2010), this paper analyzes paths after the vocational training taken by young people who successfully completed an apprenticeship in various different occupations.
In the scientific discourse mainly two facets of permeability are discussed (cf. Schlögel & Archan, 2007): Horizontal and vertical forms of permeability. Whereas horizontal permeability focus on switching school types or training occupations within the same school level, in contrast vertical permeability refers to the possibility of switching educational paths between school levels (e.g. entering a university after finishing a vocational training on the Sec II level).
In Switzerland the federal vocational baccalaureate is the key for entering a university of applied sciences (UAS) or a university (with a entrance test) after an apprenticeship. The federal vocational baccalaureate can be achieved in two ways: parallel to the apprenticeship or after the VET Diploma in a one-year full time school.
In Europe, permeability in VET is currently discussed with the focus on validation of non-formal or informal learning for higher education studies (this is part of the discussion on national and European qualification frameworks, NQF EQF). Current studies in VET show, that gender, family background and socioeconomic status are highly influential predictors for career decisions (e.g. Cedefop 2012). However, educational sociologists who are interested in questions on social inequality rarely look at the VET system and VET researchers are – vice versa – rarely interested in questions on social inequality. This may be a reason, why empirical studies lack issues of permeability and social inequality in VET.
Archan, S. & Schlögel, P. (2007). Von der Lehre zur postsekundären Bildung. Eine Studie und Modelle zur Durchlässigkeit im Österreichischen Ausbildungssystem. Wien: ibw & öibf. Barabasch, A. & Deitmer, L. (2011). Die Gestlatung der Durchlässigkeit zwischen beruflicher Bildung und hochschulischer Bildung: Übergangsansätze aus vier Ländern. In bwpat Spezial 5. Bellenberg, G., Hovestadt, G. & Klemm, K. (2004). Selektivität und Durchlässigkeit im allgemein bildenden Schulsystem. Rechtliche Regelungen und Daten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gleichwertigkeit von Abschlüssen. Essen: Arbeitsgruppe Bildungsforschung/Bildungsplanung. Breen, R. & Jonsson, J. O. (2000). Analyzing Educational Careers: A Multinomial Transition Model. In American Sociological Review 65(5), 754–772. Federal Office for Professional Education and Technology (OPET) (2012). Vocational and Professional Education and Training in Switzerland. Facts and Figures. Bern: OPET. Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) (2012). Sekundarstufe II – Allgemein- und Berufsbildung. URL: http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/15/04/00/blank/uebersicht.html Frommberger, D. (2009). „Durchlässigkeit“ in Bildung und Berufsbildung: Begriff, Begründung, Modelle und Kritik. In bwpat.
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