08 SES 08, Health Behaviours and its Determinants
Smoking rates have traditionally been high in Russia (1) as well as in former Soviet Union states (2). Among 15-year-old adolescents, the smoking rates are 15 % for boys and 9 % for girls (3). After the dissolution of Soviet Union, the smoking prevalence of women has strongly increased and smoking has become more common among young women (2, 4). However, Russia is a geographically widely spread and heterogenic area where the prevalence of smoking varies strongly between areas and only some regions offer up-to-date information about smoking, particularly for adolescents (5, 6). Adolescents in Eastern Europe smoke more than their counterparts in Finland (1). However, in Finland, adolescent smoking rates are reasonably high despite the fact that adolescent smoking has decreased in Finland among girls since the 2000s and among boys since the 1990s and this trend seems to continue (7).
Previous studies have indicated that smoking behaviors begin to develop during early adolescence (8). It has been pointed out that the younger one starts smoking, the greater the risk for habitual smoking later in life (9). This leads to serious dependence on nicotine and extensive health problems and has far-reaching consequences on later life and health (10). Therefore, it is important to prevent experimenting with smoking and initiation to smoke in the early stages of adolescence and thus prevent inequalities in later health.
The study is a part of a more extensive project "Addressing challenging health inequalities of children and youth between two Karelias (AHIC)", which is administered by the University of Eastern Finland and receives funding from the Karelia ENPI CBC program. The aim of this study was to compare and find out how smoking prevalence has changed during the time between the years 1995-2013 in North Karelia, Finland and the Pitkyaranta district, Republic of Karelia, Russia, and between the genders. Moreover, the study aim was to find out how easy it is to smoke in the school area during the school day. These results provide new valuable information on the currents smoking situation among the pupils of local schools in North-Karelia, Finland and Republic of Karelia, Russia.
The following study questions were formulated:
- How have adolescents’ smoking tendencies changed in North Karelia, Finland and the Republic of Karelia, Russia from 1995 to 2013?
- How easy is it to smoke in the school area during the school day?
(1) WHO (2013) WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic. Enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/85380/1/9789241505871_eng.pdf (2) Gilmore A, Pomerlau J, McKee M et al (2004) Prevalence of smoking in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union. Results from the living conditions, lifestyles and health studies. Addiction 99(12):1577-2187. (3) WHO (2013) WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic Country profile Russian Federation http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/policy/country_profile/rus.pdf (4) Bayard R, Gilmore A, Sticley A (2012) Changes in smoking prevalence in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union between 2001 and 2010. Am J of Public Health 102(7):1320-1328. (5) Global adult tobacco survey (GATS) (2009), Russian Federation Country Report. http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/en_tfi_gats_russian_countryreport.pdf (6) Perlman F, Bobak M, Gilmore A et al (2007) Trends in the prevalence of smoking in Russia during the transition to a market economy. Tob Control 16(5).299-305. (7) Kinnunen JM, Lindfors P, Pere L et al (2013) Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey 2013. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Finland 2013:16. http://www.stm.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=6511574&name=DLFE-26851.pdf (8) Jarvis J (2004) Why people smoke? BMJ 382(7434):277-279. (9) Hu MC, Davies M, Kandel DB (2006) Epidemiology and correlates of daily smoking and nicotine dependence among young adults in the United States. Am J Public Health 96:299–308. (10) Glover ED, Glover PD, Payne TJ (2003) Treating nicotine dependence. Am J Med Sci 326:183-186. (11) Kemppainen U, Tossavainen K, Vartiainen E et al (2006) Environmental factors as predictors of smoking among ninth-grade adolescents in Pitkäranta (Russian Karelia) and in Eastern Finland. Res Nursing Health 29(6):543–555. (12) Kemppainen U, Tossavainen K, Vartiainen E et al (2002) Smoking patterns among ninth-grade adolescents in the Social determinants of adolescent smoking in Russia in Pitkäranta District (Russia) and in Eastern Finland. Public Health Nursing 19(1):30–39. (13) Kemppainen U, Tossavainen K, Vartiainen E et al (2004) An integrative model to predict adolescents` alcohol use: A cross-national study in the Pitkäranta district (Russian Karelia) and in eastern Finland. Diversity in Health and Social Care 1:81-92. (14) Kemppainen U, Tossavainen K, Vartiainen E et al (2007) Identifying Russian and Finnish adolescents´ problem behaviors. Health Education 107(1):81-98. (15) Lopez AD, Collishaw MD, Piha TA (1994) The descriptive model of cigarette epidemic in developed countries. Tob Control 3:242-247.
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