ERG SES C 12, Special Education
This paper presentation contributes to the literature on how to improve the learning outcome of pupils receiving special needs education. Many aspects of pupil enterprises, the most widespread entrepreneurship project in Norwegian secondary school, meet the needs of pupils with special needs. Entrepreneurship education is a European priority area, and most European countries have incorporated entrepreneurship education into education strategies. A number of international policy documents on entrepreneurship education argue that pupil enterprises can increase pupil’s motivation for school in general, and particularly among those who lack motivation in more traditional subjects (European Commission, Enterprise and Industry, 2010; Volkmann & Tokarski, 2009). This is of special importance for pupils with special needs education as these pupils have a higher drop-out rate and show a lower academic performance than their peers (Nordahl & Hausstätter, 2009). Previous studies suggest that resources and teaching methods applied for special education do not have the expected impact (Solli 2005, Nordahl & Hausstätter, 2009).The Norwegian government is now supporting a more practical education, an education implementing new strategies to ensure learning for all pupils. One of these strategies is entrepreneurship education (Ministry of Education and Research, Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development & Ministry of Trade and Industry, 2009).
Norwegian policy documents expect the implementation of pupil enterprises to increase motivation for learning in school by being a realistic and cross-curricular working method (Ministry of Education and Research, 2009). These assumptions are not based on any research articles or research reports, they just seem to be taken for granted. A recent study show no significance in difference between participators and non-participators in pupil’s enterprises, concerning motivation and effort (Somby & Johansen, under review). This presentation will investigate this matter further and show the results of a qualitative study where the pupils view on pupil enterprises are elaborated. The study departure in three factors that are of special importance for pupils with special needs; close monitoring of the teacher, work in heterogeneous groups, combination of practical and theoretical instruction (Solli 2005; Nordahl & Hausstätter, 2009; Mitchell 2014), and will investigate to what degree pupils with special needs education are included in enterprises on equal footing as pupils in ordinary education.
EACEA/Eurydice. (2012). Entrepreneurship, education at school in Europe. National Strategies, Curricula and Learning Outcomes. European Commission. (2002). Final Report of the Expert Group ‘Best Procedure’ Project on Education and Training for Entrepreneurship. European Commission. (2005). Mini-Companies in Secondary Education. Best Procedure Project: Final Report of the Expert Group. European Commission, Enterprise and Industry. (2010). Towards greater cooperation and coherence in entrepreneurship education. DG Enterprise and Industry. European Commission. (2013). Entrepreneurship 2020 action plan: Reigniting the entrepreneurial spirit in Europe. Johansen, V. (2012). Entrepreneurship Education and Academic Performance. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 58(3), 300-314. Johansen, V., & Mathisen, T. (2012). [Entrepreneurship Education and the achievement of learning objectives]. ØF-rapport 14/2012. Johansen, V., & Schanke, T. (2009). [Prosperity and absence in upper secondary education] ØF-rapport 08/2009. Johansen, V., & Schanke, T. (2014).[Prevalence of offers in entrepreneurship education in common school]. In V. Johansen & L. A. Støren (Eds.),[Entrepreneurship education in Norway: approaches, extensivness, effects]. Junior Achievement - Young Enterprise Norway. (s.a.).[Pupil Enterprise Programme]. Ministry of Education and Research. (2006). National Curriculum for Knowledge Promotion in Primary and Secondary Education and Training. Ministry of Education and Research. (2007). Early Intervention for Lifelong Learning. (Report No. 16 to the Storting, 2006-2007). Ministry of Education and Research. (2009). Education Strategy. (Report No. 44 to the Storting, 2008-2009). Ministry of Education and Research. (2011).[Motivation-Mastering-Possibilities]. (Report No. 22 to the Storting, 2010-2011,). Ministry of Education and Research, Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development, & Ministry of Trade and Industry. (2009). Entrepreneurship in Education and Training – from compulsory school to higher education 2009–2014. Ministry of Education and Research, Ministry of Trade and Industry, & Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development. (2007). See the Opportunities and Make them Work! - strategy for entrepreneurship in education and training 2004-2008. (Strategic Plan 2004-2008). Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development. (2009). Local growth and hope for the future. (Report No. 25 to the Storting, 2008-2009). Ministry of Trade and Industry. (2008).[An Innovative and Sustainable Norway]. (Report No. 7 to the Storting, 2008-2009). Nordahl, T., & Hausstätter, R. S. (2009).[The assumptions, efforts and results of special education during the Knowlegde Promotion Reform] (Vol. nr. 9-2009). Solli, K.-A. (2005). [Knowledge status on special education in Norway].
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