22 SES 14 C JS, Junior Academics
Joint Paper Session NW 22 and NW 32
In our research, we examine the frequency and distribution of volunteering of higher education students by country, institution and faculty, as well as what motivation types of volunteering exist among students. We also examine the impact of the rate of volunteering by faculty on individual volunteering allowing for the effect of other social and demographic background variables. In our analysis volunteering is a higher education efficiency variable as volunteering has a positive impact on students’ career, it develops a variety of skills and competences and it develops civic awareness. Volunteering has a positive impact on educational efficiency as well.
Volunteering is difficult to define but according to some researchers (Wilson 2000, Cnaan - Amrofell 1994, Handy et al. 2010, Dekker, Halman 2003) it has four main criteria. These are the following: It is voluntary, non-obligatory, carried out by people's own choice and free will. The voluntary work is free of charge, thus paid work can be excluded. Volunteering is producing material, intellectual goods or services for the benefit of others or for public good. Volunteering is usually done in an organizational context.
There are two main types of volunteering based on motivations (Czike – Bartal 2005): the old type or traditional and the new type of volunteering. The old type or traditional volunteering is characterized by helping the poor, the importance of religion, faith, moral duty and belonging to the community. The new type of volunteering is characterized by gaining experience, challenge, professional development, spending leisure time in a useful way and making friends. According to Stefanescu & Osvat (2011) nowadays the motivations of volunteering among the young generation mostly instrumental (new type of volunteering) such as it is important making friends, meeting people with similar interest, spending leisure time usefully, learning and practicing sports and cultural activities, gaining information, developing and practicing skills, getting a job more easily, enlarging human capital. But nowadays the mixed motivations are also common among students, such as helping others is also important for students with new motivations.
According to Wollebek and Selle (2003) the changes in the patterns of volunteering may be due to the changes in individual values. At this point, they refer to Inglehart (1977, 1990), who put forward the idea that post-materialist values, such as democracy, human rights, gender equality, self-fulfillment, environmental protection and leisure, have replaced material values. Contrary Inglehart’s views, according to Putnam (1995, 2000) the political apathy is increasing, local initiatives are decreasing and materialistic and individualistic values are more appealing to young people. The former values seem to be increasing the probability of voluntary activities, and the latter values are rather decreasing this probability.
According to some researchers (Astin& Sax, 1998; Hesser, 1995; Eyler et al., 1997; Mabry, 1998) volunteering among students is very important because volunteering can be an indicator of students’ efficiency in higher education. Volunteering is a sort of interim variable between the impact of studies and the development of students’ competences. Voluntary work has a positive influence on students’ academic achievement, and just like higher education as a whole, it develops other competences necessary in real life for example active, conscious citizenship and a sense of responsibility. In addition, volunteering helps in students’ socialization for work, and volunteers, especially those who do new forms of volunteering, later find employment more easily.
Astin, A. W. and Sax, L. J. (1998): How Undergraduates Are Affected by Service participation Journal of College Student Development Vol. 39, No 3. 251-263. Cnaan, Ram A., Amrofell, L. M. (1994): Mapping Volunteer Activity. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 4. 335-351 Clary, E. G.,Snyder, M., Ridge, R. D., Copeland, J., Stukas, A. A.,Haugen,J., et al. (1998). Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: A functional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,74,1516–1530 Czike Klára – Bartal Annamária (2005): Önkéntesek és non-profit szervezetek. OFA Dekker, Paul, Halman, Loek (2003): Volunteering and Values: An Introduction. In Dekker Paul, Halman, Loek (eds.): The Values of Volunteering. Cross-Cultural Perspectives. New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow, Kluver Academic/Plenum Publishers. 1-18. Eyler, J., Giles Jr., D. E., & Braxton, J. (1997): The Impact of Service-Learning on College Students. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 4, 5-15. HANDY, F.,CNAAN, R. A., HUSTINX, L., KANG, C., BRUDNEY, J. L., HASKI-LEVENTHAL, D., HOLMES, K. , MEIJS, L. C., PESSI,A. B., RANADE, B., YAMAUCHI, N., ZRINSCAK, S. (2010): A Cross-Cultural Examination of Student Volunteering: Is It All About Résumé Building? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 3. 498 – 523. Hesser, G. (1995): Faculty Assessment of Student Learning: Outcomes Attributed to Service-Learning and Evidence of Changes in Faculty Attitudes about Experiential Education. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 2, 33-42. Mabry, J. B. (1998): Pedagogical Variations in Service-Learning and Student Outcomes: How Time, Contact and Reflection Matter. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 5, 32-47. Inglehart, Ronald (1977): The silent revolution. Changing values and political styles among western publics. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press Inglehart, Ronald (1990): Culture shift in advanced industrial society. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press Putnam, Robert (1995): Bowling alone. America’s declining social capital. Journal of Democracy 6. 65-78. Putnam, Robert (2000): Bowling alone. New York, Simon and Schuster Stefanescu, Florica, Osvat, Claudia (2011): Volunteer Landmarks among College Students. The Yearbook of the „Gh. Zane” Institute of Economic Reserches. 01/2011, 20(2): 139-149. Wilson, J. (2000): Volunteering. Annual Review of Sociology, 26: pp. 215-240. Wollebaek, D., Selle, P. (2003): Generations and Organizational Change. In: Dekker, P. Halman, D. (2003) (ed.): The Values of Volunteering. Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Kluver Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow 161-179.
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