ERG SES D 03, ICT and Education
Due to the rapid developments in ICT, some real life problems have started to be seen in the virtual environments as well. Loafing, bullying, addiction and lack of literacy can be given as examples of those problems that society face. When these problems are moved to the virtual environments, they are named as cyber loafing, cyber bullying, internet addiction and information literacy, respectively. Although these new cyber concepts are strongly related to the traditional ones, they are different in some respects.
According to Maslow (1943), there are some hierarchical needs of humans that need to be fulfilled orderly. These hierarchical needs are physiological, safety, relationships, self-esteem and self-actualization from lower to higher needs of humans, respectively (Maslow, 1943). This hierarchy has some implications for education as well. For example, it can be applied to needs of students in the online classrooms (Milheim, 2012). When it comes to education, the main fact is that it is hard for an individual to learn effectively without feeling safe because learning is an inherently social process, which takes the third place from the bottom in Maslow’s hierarchical model. In addition, cyber bullying might also affect students’ psychology, which takes places at the bottom of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Significance and Aim
Cyber bullying has myriad negative effects on the cyber victims’ psychology. It affects cyber victims’ emotions negatively (Patchin & Hinduja, 2006). Besides, it has dramatic social and physical effects on them. It might ruin cyber victims’ lives and may lead to completed suicides (Olweus & Breivik, 2014). Hence, preventing cyber bullying is of great significance in order not to disrupt cyber victims’ psychologies. And to do this, first of all, the underlying reasons of cyber bullying should be compressively understood (Eroglu & Guler, 2015).
Akca, Sayimer, Sali and Basak (2014) found out that new media literacy had a negative relationship with cyber bullying, implying the relationship between information literacy and cyber bullying. On the other hand, Leung and Lee (2011) pointed out that internet addicted people are more likely to encounter internet risks including cyber bullying than those who are not internet addicted. This finding implies the relationship between internet addiction and cyber bullying. Under the lights of above findings, it was aimed to investigate the relationship of cyber bullying with cyber loafing, internet addiction and information literacy within the scope of this study. Besides, the effects of some demographic variables on the cyber bullying were investigated as well. In reaching these goals the following research questions are tried to be answered:
1. Is there a statistically significant relationship between cyber bullying and
- 1a. internet addiction
- 1b. cyber loafing and
- 1c. information literacy?
2. Do the following variables have a statistically significant effect on cyber bullying?
- 2a. Gender
- 2b. Age
- 2c. Education status
- 2d. Occupation
- 2e. The most frequently used device to connect internet
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