14 SES 04 A, Education Outside the Classroom, Service-learning and Recreational Activities
Education outside the classroom (EOtC) is a term which in a Danish school context is referring to curriculum-based teaching outside of school in natural as well as cultural settings on a regular basis. EOtC in schools has become increasingly popular in Denmark since 2000 (Bentsen et al. 2010) and unpublished research from 2014 show that 19 percent of all Danish public schools are practicing EOtC.
Neuroscience, the science of interpreting the work and function, gets greater and greater influence on views on learning and knowledge (Fredens, 2011; Schilhab & Steffensen, 2011, 2007). Moreover, research on how the episodic memory can influence pupils’ cognitive outcomes is investigated further (Lieberoth, 2013). Research has showed that learning that take place outside the classroom can enlarge multi-sensory perception and that outdoor teaching can involve more senses, which can lead to increased academic performance among pupils (Auer, 2008; Fägerstam et al., 2012; Grønningsæter et al., 2007).
However, evidence and knowledge about how EOtC can influences pupils’ memory related to academic achievements is still lacking. Only a few Scandinavian studies have looked into the connections between an increased subject-specific memory for pupils and EOtC (Bjørklund et al., 2012; Fägerstam et al., 2013),
This present study is part of a larger study, TEACHOUT (www.teachout.ku.dk). The TEACHOUT project studies the interdependencies between EOtC and physical activity, learning and social relations in Danish public schools (N= 48 classes).
In this qualitative study, we investigate the forms of knowledge acquired by pupils taught the subject Danish (i.e. mothertongue) in different teaching contexts at school and outside school. Therefore, the aim is to investigate:
1) Which parts of the teaching, are pupils able to remember, when you ask them just after a three weeks teaching period and again after 6 months?
2) Are there any differences in what pupils can remember, when you compare teaching outside the classroom, with teaching inside the classroom?
A cross-disciplinary approach is necessary to gain insight concerning the elements and factors in EOtC. The study takes its primary theoretical foundation in a combination of the available theoretical approaches and research-based knowledge of outdoor education, pupils’ memory and outdoor learning (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975; Illeris, 2006; Jordet, 2007, 2008; Fredens 2012, Schilhab 2007).
• Auer, M. (2008). Sensory perception, rationalism and outdoor environmental education. Geographical and Environmental Education, 17(1), 6–12. Bentsen, P., Søndergaard Jensen, F., Mygind, E., & Barfoed Randrup, T. (2010). The extent and dissemination of udeskole in Danish schools. Urban forestry & urban greening, 9(3), 235-243. Fägerstam & Blom (2012): Learning biology and mathematics outdoors: effects and attitudes in a swedish high school context. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, pp. 1-20 Falk, J.H. (2003). Personal Meaning Mapping. In: G. Caban, C. Scott, J. Falk & L. Dierking, (Eds.) Museums and Creativity: A study into the role of museums in design education, pp. 10-18. Sydney, AU: Powerhouse Publishing. Fredens, K. (2012): Mennesket i hjernen. En grundbog i neuropædagogik. [The human in the brain. A textbook about neuro-pedagogy]. 2. udg. Gyldendal Akademisk Forlag. Grønningsaeter, I., Hallås, O., Kristiansen, T., & Naevdal, F. (2007). Fysisk aktivitet hos 11-12- åringar i skulen [Physical activity in 11–12-year-old school children]. Tidsskrift for den norske laegeforening, 22(15), 2927–2929 Jordet, A. N. (2007). En undersøkelse om uteskolens didaktikk i et danningsteoretisk og erfaringspedagogisk perspektiv.[A study of outdoor education didactics in a formation (buildung) theory and experience educational perspective] Doctor thesis. Oslo: Jordet, A. N. (2008). Outdoor schooling in Norway - research and experiences [The classroom outside: Adapted education in an extended space of learning]. Healthier, Wiser and Happier Children. Outdoor Education - learning with mind, heart and body. Lieberoth, A (2011): Hukommelsessystemer og Oplevelseslæring - Hvordan forvandler hjernen episoder til semantisk viden [Memory systems and Experiential Learning. How the brain transforms episodes to semantic knowledge? Cursiv. V.11 2013 Rickinson, Dillon, Teamey, Morris, Choi, Sanders & Benefield (2004). The value of outdoor learning: evidence from research in the UK and elsewhere. School Science Review, March 2006, 87(320) Schilhab, T.S.S. & Steffensen, B. (2007). Nervepirrende Pædagogik – introduktion til pædagogisk neurovidenskab. [Nerve-racking Pedagogy – an introduction to educational neuroscience] Akademisk Forlag: København. Schilhab, T.S.S. & Steffensen, B. (2011). Læs mig – Om spejlneuroner, kropslig forankring og læseforståelse. [Read me – about mirror neurons, bodily anchoring and reading ability] Værløse. Dafolo. Shilhab (2007): Knowledge for Real: On implicit and explicit representations and education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research V. 51, I. 3, 2007 Stolpe & Björklund (2012): Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion: Retelling a narrative as an interplay between implicit and explicit memories. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, DOI:10.1080/00313831.2012.656278
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