11 SES 16 JS, Trust in Educational Settings. Exploring Trust Research in Different European Countries: Past and prospects
Joint Panel Discussion NW 11 and NW 32
Trust – defined as an individual’s or group’s willingness to be vulnerable to another party – is increasingly recognised as an important factor in educational settings. For example, trust in general is said to reduce transaction costs, which can enhance the acceptance of educational innovations (Bryk/Schneider, 2002). Furthermore, trust between parents and their children’s teachers (Lerkkanen et al., 2013; Beycioglu et al., 2013; Schweizer et al., 2017; Adams et al., 2009), as well as between teachers and their pupils facilitates pupils’ educational achievements (Goddard et al., 2001). It is also known that several factors foster the establishment of trusting relationships: honesty, openness, reliability, competence, integrity and benevolence (Hoy/Tschannen-Moran, 1999; Schoorman et al., 2007). Existing research thus points to trust being both a result, i.e. a dependent variable, as well as a precondition, i.e. an independent variable, in educational settings. Trust is also shaped by institutional conditions such as culture and norms as well as structural features e.g. such as the pupil composition of a school (van Maele/Van Houtte, 2010; Görlich/Katznelson, 2015).
Beyond the interpersonal level, trust can relate to confidence in systems and institutions. This includes the education system, but also raises questions of a society’s or nation’s level of trust in general. In Europe, high levels of trust have been observed in Northern Europe in particular, while Eastern European countries have shown comparatively low levels of trust (World Values Survey). Besides, trust is lower in societies in which social inequality is high (Borgonovi, 2012). If we also take into account differences concerning the governance of educational systems’ and educational organisations’ quality within Europe, e.g. regarding degrees of centralization, the role of bureaucracies and markets or the use of evidence in policy and practice (e.g. Martilla, 2014), questions concerning the relationship between trust and educational governance are being prompted: In what way are the different modes of governance and trust interconnected?
Overall, research exploring trust in education settings remains rather limited. The panel discussion’s aim is to strengthen and identify new avenues in the research on trust by focussing on three areas of interest.
First, on a methodological level, the panel discussion will explore how levels of trust in education can be compared across countries. How can a necessary degree of standardisation be achieved without neglecting country-specific contextual factors?
Second, the link between societal levels of general trust, on the one hand, and trust placed in educational institutions and professionals, on the other hand, will be discussed. To this end, presenting researchers, based on findings from their own research on trust in educational settings, will address but are not limited to the following questions: What is known about country-specific (tacit) theories of trust and criteria for the assessment of trustworthiness (interpretations of different dimensions of trust as well as norms considered sufficient to be judged trustworthy)? What can be said about country-specific practices in the interaction between, for example, parents and teachers, teachers and students or teachers and education administrators? How do findings compare across educational settings and groups (e.g. students in school, university, marginalized youths)?
Third, the panel discussion looks into the consequences of specific patterns of trust. In particular, participants are asked to comment on the role of trust for enhancing cultural and social capital, organisational quality and, consequently, educational achievement and social equity.
Adams, C.M., Forsyth, P.B., & Mitchell, R.M. (2009). The Formation of Parent-School Trust: A Multilevel Analysis. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(4), 4-33. Beycioglu, K., Ozer, N., & Sahin, S. (2013). Parental Trust and Parent-School Relationships in Turkey. Journal of School Public Relations, 34, 306-329. Borgonovi, F. (2012). The relationship between education and levels of trust and tolerance in Europe. The British Journal of Sociology, 63(1), 146-167. Bormann, I., & Niedlich, S. (2017): Elterliches Vertrauen gegenüber den Lehrkräften ihres Kindes. In D. Killus, K.-J. Tillmann (eds.), 4. JAKO-O Bildungsstudie (pp. 135-159). Münster: Waxmann. Bryk, A., & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Goddard, R., Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, W. (2001). A Multilevel Examination of the Distribution and Effects of Teacher Trust in Students and Parents in Urban Elementary Schools. The Elementary School Journal, 102(1), 3-17 Görlich, A., & Katznelson, N. (2015). Educational trust: relational and structural perspectives on young people on the margins of the education system. Educational Research, 57(2), 201-215. Hoy, W., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (1999). Five Faces of Trust. An Empirical Confirmation in Urban Elementary Schools. Journal of School Leadership, 9, 184-208. Lerkkanen, M.-K., Kikas, E., Pakarinen, E., Poikonen, P.-L., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2013). Mothers’ trust toward teachers in relation to teaching practices. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 153-165. Marttila, T. (2014). Die wissensbasierte Regierung der Bildung – Die Genese einer transnationalen Gouvernementalität in England und Schweden. Berliner Journal für Soziologie, 24(2), 257-287. Schoorman, F.D., Mayer, R.C., & Davis, J.H. (2007). An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust: Past, Present, and Future. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 344-354. Schweizer, A. Niedlich, S., Adamczyk, J., & Bormann, I. (2017). Approaching Trust and Control in Parental Relationships with Educational Institutions. Studia Paedagogica, 22(2), 97-115. Vanhoof, J., & Pol, M. (2017). Trust and Control in Shaping Educational Processes. Studia Paedagogica, 22(2), 5-8. Van Maele, D., & Van Houtte, M. (2010). The Quality of School Life: Teacher-Student Trust Relationships and the Organizational School Context. Social Indicators Research, 100(1), 85-100.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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