ERG SES C 14, Language and Education
The development of curriculum, textbooks and assessment is a continuous process for better teaching and learning outcomes. The National Education Policy 2010 of Bangladesh puts emphasis on English language proficiency for access to global knowledge and economy (Ministry of Education Bangladesh, 2010). For this reason, the National Curriculum & Textbook Board (NCTB) revised its secondary curriculum in 2012 for English education in the light of the 2010 National Education policy. The only textbook for the whole country for secondary level, English for Today has been developed accordingly in 2013 for grades 6 to 10, to help students attain competency in listening, speaking, reading and writing. However, there is a disconnect in curriculum, classroom practice and assessment in secondary English education (Ali, 2014). For example, the oral skills-listening and speaking are completely ignored in classroom practice and in assessment although it exists in curriculum (Shurovi, 2014). Therefore, the achievement of desired competency in secondary English education is being interrupted. Although the researchers (Ali, 2014; Shurovi, 2014) have identified this disconnect in curriculum, practice and assessment, they have not proposed any theoretical model to overcome this issue. This paper aims to explore not only the reasons for this disconnect coherently but also offers the guidelines through the analytical lens of the Constructive Alignment model to achieve the intended learning outcomes for the secondary English education in Bangladesh. This CA model systematically aligns the aims and objectives of a curriculum to the teaching and learning activities through a proper assessment tasks to the intended learning outcomes. The findings will support the argument that if the coherence of secondary curriculum, classroom teaching and learning activities and assessment system is not aligned, the aspirations of the National Education Policy 2010 will not be achieved.
In this study, the methodological approach is mainly based on qualitative framework. To collect the data, semi-structured interviews are conducted as a qualitative research tool. The interviews have included the Head of the National Curriculum & Textbook Board (NCTB), two experts concerned to curriculum policy and development of NCTB, one subject expert on English textbooks for the secondary level, six English teachers from an urban secondary school, and seven English teachers from a rural secondary school in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study determined the methodology and its tool to collect the relevant data as I wanted to go in-depth study of the phenomenon that is the disconnect in curriculum, classroom practice and assessment of secondary English education in Bangladesh. In this regard, Dornyei (2007) postulated that qualitative research opened up the scope to obtain rich data to have human experiences to go for an in-depth analysis of a phenomenon. Therefore, qualitative researchers "study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them" (Denzin and Lincoln, 2005, p.3). The data obtained through semi-structured interviews will be transcribed in Roman Bangla. The transcribed data of the interviews will be considered as a corpus of exploratory language data. Then the data will be analysed as a discourse, based on the existing corpus. I have chosen this method of analysis because interview data are the natural feedback via human interaction for knowledge production (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2011). Therefore, it is rationale to analyse this research data generated by the interviewees’ opinions, perceptions, and paradigms to reduce biasness as corpus based discourse analysis is not only a way of quantitative analysis but it is also enabled to carry out a qualitative analysis of a study to minimize the bias as it can consider the interview data as its co-text (Ahmed, 2016). Moreover, corpus based discourse analysis will enable me as a researcher to understand the interview data more pragmatically through the help of AntConc toolkit.
This study is focused on two kinds of outcomes. Firstly, it will understand the attitudes, perceptions, paradigms and bureaucratic blocks that hinder in the coherence of curriculum, classroom practice and assessment of language education for secondary level in Bangladesh. Secondly, it will propose the suggestions how to achieve the intended learning outcomes of the secondary English curriculum to the teaching and learning activities through a proper assessment tasks using Constructive Alignment Model. Although the study explores the context of a developing country, the situation is also similar to some of the countries in Europe such as Sweden for its minority language education (Warren, 2013). The theme of the conference is “inclusion and exclusion of the resources for education research”. This paper, accordingly, examines the inclusion of the opinions and paradigms of the policy level people related to the curriculum as well as the rural and urban secondary English teachers related to practice and assessment to overcome the disconnect in curriculum, classroom practice and assessment of secondary English education in Bangladesh for attaining the intended learning outcomes.
Ali, M. M. (2014). An evaluation of 'English for Today: for classes 11-12' as a textbook for Bangladesh higher secondary education (HSE). The English Teacher, 43(1), 1-10. Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2011). Research methods in education. Routledge: London Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). The sage handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Dornyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press Haider, A. S. (2016). A corpus-assisted critical discourse analysis of the Arab uprisings. (Doctoral thesis). Retrieved from https://ir.canterbury.ac.nz /bitstream/handle/10092/13008/Haider %2C%20Ahmad%20Final_%20PhD%20Thesis%20Linguistics% 2056442034%20%28Final%29.pdf?sequence=1 Ministry of Education Bangladesh. (2010; Retrieved 2018 January 3). National education policy. Retrieved from http://www.moedu.gov.bd/ Shurovi, M. (2014). CLT and ELT in Bangladesh: Practice and prospect of speaking and listening. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5(6), 1263-1268. Warren, R. A. (2013). Mother tongue tuition in Sweden- Curriculum analysis and classroom experience. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 6(1), 95-116.
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