04 SES 13 B, Forced Migration and Inclusive Education: European perspectives on including forced migrants into teacher training, (non-)formal schooling and work Part 1
Symposium to be continued in 04 SES 16 B
The world is on the move as never before. In the last few years, we have witnessed how a flow of people has had to leave their home countries because of war, unstable political environment or simply in the search for a better life. Families with school age children who settle in a new country have to learn a new language and engage with a new culture. The schools may or may not be experienced in recognising and responding to the multiple needs and challenges faced by the students and their families. Iceland is one of the countries that have seen an increase in immigration in the past decade. In 1996 foreign citizens were 1.9% (Statistics Iceland, 2016) but by 1st January 2017 immigrants in Iceland were 10.6%. Students who do not have Icelandic as their mother tongue follow this number as they were registered to be 9.3% in 2016. The changes have been fast and for a small nation of 330,000 inhabitants this can have a major impact on small towns and villages and their schools. This paper presents findings on different ideas that emerge among parents and teachers about the role of schools and education. The aim is to explore and understand these different perspectives, their nature and how they can be used to improve the education of the students concerned. This research draws on three main strands from theories and literature; home-school collaboration (Ameta, 2013), structuralism and post-structuralism (Jóhannesson, 2010; Peters & Wain, 2003) and Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory (Hofstede, 2011; de Mooij & Hofstede, 2010) The research is framed within an interpretive paradigm (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992). A qualitative methodology (Creswell, 2007). The study presents data from an ongoing project on the education of immigrants and refugees in Iceland. The data was gathered from various stakeholders in order to gain a broad perspective on the issue. Semi-structured group interviews (Bender, 2013) were conducted with teachers who have the experience of teaching students with immigrant background (grades 1-10). In-depth interviews were conducted with parents of immigrant students who have a European background and Syrian parents were also interviewed. The findings are introduced by one main theme; The role of the school as an educational institution which is divided into five sub-themes; Lack of discipline and respect, academic demands, the relationship between teachers and students, approach to learning, keeping up with their home country curriculum.
Ameta, E. S. (2013). Building Culturally Responsive Family-School Relationships (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson. Bender, Sóley. (2013). Samræður í rýnihópum. In S. Halldórsdóttir (ed.), Handbók í Aðferðafræði Rannsókna (pp.299–312). Akureyri: Ásprent. Bogdan , R. C., & Biklen, S.K. (1992). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design, choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1014 Jóhannesson, I. Á. (2010). Historical discourse analysis as professional and political reflexivity. In J. Kauko, R. Rinne, & H. Kynkäänniemi (Eds.), Restructuring the truth of schooling—essays on discursive practices in the sociology and politics of education. A festschrift for Hannu Simola (pp. 133–149). Research in Educational Sciences 48. Helsinki: Finnish Educational Research Association (FERA). de Mooij, M. & Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model – Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 85–110. doi: 10.2501/S026504870920104X. Statistics Iceland. (2016). Population by sex, municipality and citizenship, 1 January 1998-2016. Retrieved from: http://www.statice.is/statistics/population/inhabitants/background/
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