The theme of this research is aimed at improving the quality of training in competencies of Higher Education students. To this end, the innovation groups COMDISDOC and COMPROFESU investigates the nature of the tasks and training processes that best contribute to the training of university students of the ESTRATIC Master's Program, in the domain of professional competences, singularly the competences of innovation, communication, methodological and professional identity.
What are the most relevant didactic processes to train students in the professional competencies of innovation, communication, methodological and professional identity?
GO1. Generate didactic and heuristic processes that contribute to the training of students to achieve the professional competencies that are projected in the training of teachers.
SO1. Discover the formative nature of the creative tasks that contribute to the development of innovation competence.
SO2. Detect the formative quality of the activities that propitiate the communicative competence.
SO3. Deepen in experiential and professional situations through the development of didactic and heuristic methods that train students in the methodological competence.
SO4. Consolidate processes that improve the professional identity of each student to face the challenges and problems of their work environment.
Educational Innovation Competence. Educational innovation is the creation of a comprehensive culture to improve educational practice and the institution (Medina-R, Cacheiro & Medina-M, 2016). This path of innovation is conceptualized by Jiménez, González & Fandos (2016) as deliberation, change and optimization of instructional and formative processes.
This competence is favored through reflection from the formative action itself, as pointed out by Le Boterf (2010) and Aswhin et al. (2015). The improvement of educational innovative challenge requires an individual and institutional models (Medina, 2015).
It is necessary to Involvement in social interaction between teachers and students for the communicative competence (Zlatic et al, 2014). Mastering communication competence makes the person a model for the development of social skills and stimulates cooperative learning among equals (Gillies, 2004).
It is also about achieving an open and collaborative style in digital scenarios (Huber et al, 2018, Dominguez & García, 2012). Enrich the style of knowledge of the language with new discourses and values that facilitate positive interaction between human beings and cultural diversity (Baldacci, 2018).
De la Hoz (2013) emphasizes that a good didactic presentation demands an adequate transfer between the nuclear elements of the subject, described with their peaks and valleys, which motivate each student, avoiding presenting the knowledge as a flat electrocardiogram.
Medina (2015) proposes a methodological line that integrates autonomous learning, collaborative, and masterful lesson.
Huber et al (2018) present the importance of teaching methods for adapted learning and address the complexity of intercultural contexts, formulating the application of methods: project-based learning, problem-based learning, fractal teaching, and case studies.
Professional Identity Competence
The identity of professionals is a matter that has been widely discussed in educational research, from very different approaches (Beijaard, Meijer and Verloop, 2004, Olsen and Buchanan, 2017, Avidov-Ungar and Forkosh-Baruch, 2018; Richardson, and Watt, 2018, Medina (2013) and Medina, Domínguez, and Sánchez, (2013) Day et al, 2017,).
Indeed, the memory of those teachers worthy of their recognition, has a great impact on the basic elements that they wish to do as their own in their work as education professionals (López-Gómez, 2012). Professional identity means being an educator today and considering how one's own professional challenges are experienced (Beijaard, Meijer and Verloop, 2004, Richardson and Watt, 2018), since the schemes and ways of doing and relating are constantly changing. The teacher's life history determines the teacher's identity about what they are or want to be (Sugrue, 1997, Izadinia, 2013, Delgado, 2018).
A mixed, quantitative and qualitative approach has been carried out (Huber, Gürtler and Gento, 2018, López, and Camilli, 2014, Leví et al, 2018) to evaluate the mastery achieved in the professional competences of the Master students of the Faculty of Education of the UNED. The designed questionnaire includes closed and open questions, being validated by a group of experts. The scale used consists of 5 values, from totally disagree (1) to totally agree (5). The quantitative data has been analyzed with the SPSS and the qualitative ones with the Atlas.ti software. The methodological complementarity has allowed us to analyze the categories that emerge from the qualitative analysis, modulated by quantitative data, facilitating the reflection and generation of specific tasks for the development of competences. The participation of students in the educational innovation group has favored their style of reflection and professional satisfaction in coherence with the works of Del Moral, Villalustre, and Neira, 2016).
Findings Students who has participate in the study are 112, with predominance of women (87.5%), with an average age of 27.9 years and 2 years of professional experience. The majority of questions are closed, complemented with open questions that has been answer by 47 students. From the quantitative analysis, we emphasize that most of the answers concentrate on the agreement options and totally agree. The "Item 4. The resolution of problems contributes to the identity with their future profession", has obtained a 52% in the option totally in agreement. As a counterpoint, the "Item 2. The scientific knowledge of the subject is essential to act effectively as a professional", has been valued at 35% in the same option. The openness to change is also expressed: "I must say that my professional identity is in a process of continuous change" (E045). The experiential learning is made explicit in: "The brief experience in the workplace has given me new knowledge to face the day to day in the classrooms. However, the relationship and exchange of information with other professionals is essential to keep growing "(E014). Conclusions The main conclusions obtained in relation to the first objective, show that the tasks linked to previous innovative experiences and models of professional recognition have been decisive for students, consolidating a culture of change. The second objective related to communicative competence has been achieved by carrying out a taxonomy of tasks, supported by the dialogic principle (Ruf & Gallin, 1998). The objective, corresponding to the methodological competence, has been achieved by offering students the integration of didactic-heuristic methods to solve cases of their future profession. Finally, the domain of professional identity has been achieved by solving practical problems related to professional demands.
Ashwin, P. et al (2016). Reflective teaching in Higher Education.London: Bloomsbury. Avidov-Ungar, O. et al (2018). Professional identity of teacher educators. Teaching and Teacher Education, 73, 183-191. Baldacci, M. (2018). La competenza, un costrutto per la formazione scolastica. InterEstraTIC 2018. Beijaard, D. et al (2004). Reconsidering research on teachers’ professional identity. Teaching and teacher education, 20(2), 107-128. Day, Ch. et al. (2017). Competence-based Education and Teacher Professional Development (pp. 165-182). Switzerland: Springer. Del Moral, E. et al (2016). Relatos digitales. Ocnos, 15, 22-41. Domínguez, M. C. et al (2012). Tratamiento didáctico de las competencias básicas. Madrid: Universitas. Domínguez, M. C. et al (2014). Las competencias docentes. REDU, 12(1), 239-267. Domínguez, M. C. et al (2018). Desarrollo de competencias en el primer curso de universidad. Publicaciones, 48(1), 39-62. Gillies, R. M. (2004). The effects of communication training on teachers’ and students’ verbal behaviours during cooperative learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 41(3), 257-279. Huber, G.L. et al (2018). La aportación de la estadística exploratoria al análisis cualitativo. Perspectiva Educacional, 57(1), 76-97. Izadinia, M. (2013). A review of research on student teachers’ professional identity. BERJ, 39(4), 694–713. Jiménez, J. et al (2016). Innovación educativa. En A. Medina et al, Didáctica para profesionales de la educación. Madrid: Universitas. Le Boterf, G. (2010). Repenser la compétence: pour dépasser les idées reçues. Eyrolles. López, E. et al (2014). Métodos mixtos de investigación en modalidad b-learning. Historia y Comunicación Social, 19, 403-415. Medina, A. (2013). Formación del profesorado: Actividades innovadoras para el dominio de las competencias docentes. Madrid: Ramon Areces. Medina, A. (2015). Innovación de la Educación y de la Docencia. Madrid: CERASA. Medina, A. et al (2013). Evaluación de las competencias de los estudiantes. Revista de investigación educativa, 31(1), 239-255. Medina-R, A. et al (2016). Características de la práctica docente. En A. Medina y M.C. Domínguez, Didáctica. Formación básica para los profesionales de la educación (pp. 361-400). Madrid: Universitas. Olsen, B. et al(2017). Everyone wants you to do everything: investigating the professional identity development of teacher educators. Teacher Education Quarterly, 44(1), 9. Richardson, P.W. et al (2018). Teacher Professsional Identity and Career Motivation. En P.A. Schutz et al, Research on Teacher Identity. Mapping Challenges and Innovations. Berlin: Springer. Sugrue, C. (1997). Student Teachers’ Lay Theories and Teaching Identities. European Journal of Teacher Education, 20(3), 213-225. Zlatić, L. et al (2014). Development of teacher communication competence. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 606-610.
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