ERG SES D 07, Parallel Session D 07
The paper deals with error correction and its formative aspect in a learning context. Its objective is to present the outcomes of my thesis research and research project for my dissertation.
My thesis focused on error correction by the teacher during speaking activities in ESL (English as a second language) lessons and how the manner of error correction influences the students’ self-belief.
The correction of learner’s errors does not only determine learner’s achievement but it also affects self-belief, which I define as confidence in one’s own abilities of judgment in a particular moment. Further, the paper describes the relationship between students’ self-belief and other people’s reaction to his errors and brings suggestions how students perceive different ways of their error corrections. The correction may come from the learners themselves, the classmates or the teacher and learners prefer different ways of correcting at different stages of learning and at different age (Edge, 1989).
An error is an inseparable part of learning and the life of an individual itself. There seems to be no consensus on a simple definition of an error. Researches usually define an error according to their field of study. Concerning the education and learning environment an error might be defined as a form unwanted by the teacher in a given teaching/learning context.
However, regarding the second language learning, the definition of an error is more complicated since correctness of a word form usage depends on the context of the usage. Also, the language develops, so errors eventually become accepted forms. (Korčáková, 2005)
The error correction has an important formative aspect. A learner’s errors are significant in three different ways. Firstly, errors indicate to the teachers the learner’s progress and, consequently, what remains for him to learn or what should be revised. Hence the errors are also feedback for the teacher whether the teaching was effective and successful. Secondly, errors are also essential for the learner himself as an evidence of his progress. Thirdly, errors are an evidence on how a language or any other subject matter is learned and what strategies are employed in acquisition of the knowledge.(Hendrickson, 1987)
The centre of my thesis research was a learner. My dissertation focuses on teachers and their perception of both the learners’ and their own errors. The aim of my dissertation is to find out how teachers provide feedback and correct learner’s errors and which factors influence teacher’s decision on how to react on learner’s errors and correct them and if one of the factors is a learner’s personality. Moreover, I will try to design a typology of speaking activity errors and find if learner’s sensitivity about the error correction differs according to the type of the error. Also, the research object is to answer the question how teachers reflect a fundamental role of the error in a classroom assessment and if teacher’s feedback fulfils the formative purpose; in other words, if learners understand the feedback given by the teacher.
Corder, S.P. Error Analysis and Interlanguage. Oxford : Oxford University press, 1981. ISBN 0 19 437073 9 Edge, J. Mistakes and correction. London : Longman, 1989. ISBN 0582-74626-4 Hendrickson, .Error Correction in Foreign Language Teaching:Recent Theory, Research, and Practise. In Long, M. Jack, Richards, C. Methodology in TESOL. Boston : Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1987. s. 355-369 ISBN 0-8384-2695-6 Korčáková, J. Chyba a učení cizím jazykům. [Error and learning foreign languages.] Hradec Králové : Gaudeamus, 2005. ISBN 80-7041-654-8 Salikin, H. Learner’s Perception of Oral Error Correction: An Interpretive Study. [online]. 2001. [cit. 2009-10-24] Dostupné na www.unej.ac.id/fakultas/sastra/sastra_en/jurnal/vol.../hairus.pdf Sedláčková, D. Rozvoj zdravého sebevědomí žáka. [The development of individual’s self-confidence.] Praha : Grada, 2009. ISBN 978-80-247-2685-4 Tedick, D. Research on Error Correction and Implications for Classroom Teaching. [online] 1998. [cit. 2009-24-10] Dostupné na www.carla.umn.edu/immersion/acie/vol1/May1998.pdf
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