26 SES 06 B, Educational Leadership
Parallel Paper Session
Discussions concerning governance originally based on new or neo institutional theories, such as agency theory or stakeholder theory. These approaches focused on an optimal design of governance mechanisms to enhance performance and its exchange especially in a corporate context (corporate governance) in the private sector. Following economic and sociological discussion and realising that the pure corporate approach was not applicable in education, the educational approach to governance was founded: Educational Governance. However, the theoretical impetus from the fields of economics (e.g. New Public Management) has been an important rationale for the transformation of several school systems in the last decade. These often include a standards-based reform with high-stakes testing and school choice policies which imply more competition among schools. Although these measures are intended to improve effectiveness and efficiency of the school system, studies have revealed a mix of positive and undesirable effects on teaching and other aspects of educational practice (Koretz, 2008). The unintended effects of these programs may even be of greater importance than the intended ones.
However, several aspects of the modern economic discussion have not yet found their way into this discourse, although they provide important food for thought concerning governance, especially in the educational field. Education is based on collaborative common understandings. Performance as such, is heavily immaterial and relies on trust. High degrees of participation, teamwork and flexibility are required, which makes performance difficult to control and, as a result, contracts are incomplete (Alvesson, 2004). These characteristics diverge from the assumption of a control oriented approach such as agency theory, which relies on the idea of man as homo-economicus which “depict subordinates as individualistic, opportunistic, and self-serving” (Davis et al., 1997). Based on that theory, a control oriented approach on educational governance might have negative side effects such as motivational crowding out (Frey, 1997) or result in self-fulfilling prophecies (Argyris, 1973). An alternative approach such as stewardship theory “depict[s] subordinates as collectivists, pro-organizational, and trustworthy” (Davis et al., 1997). Blair and Stout have a similar understanding (1999, 2001). They point out several critical aspects on team production, describing it as a “complex productive activity that requires multiple parties to make contributions that are to some extent both team specific and unverifiable to an outside party” (Blair and Stout, 2001). The result of team production activities are “nonseparable, meaning that it is not possible to attribute any particular portion of the result to any particular member’s contribution” (Blair and Stout, 2001), different governance mechanisms are therefore needed. Also the Ostrom findings on the question of common pool resources (1990) provide convincing evidence for the success of alternative governance mechanisms.
When discussing governance mechanisms in an educational context, modern economic approaches should be taken into account.
ALVESSON, M. 2004. Knowledge Work and Knowledge-Intensive Firms, Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press. ANDERFUHREN-BIGET, S., VARONE, F., GIAUQUE, D. & RITZ, A. 2010. Motivating Employees of the Public Sector: Does Public Service Motivation Matter? International Public Management Journal, 13, 213 - 246. ARGYRIS, C. 1973. Organization man: Rational and self-actualizing. Public Administration Review, 33, 354-357. BLAIR, M. M. & STOUT, L. A. 1999. A Team Production Theory of Corporate Law. Virginia Law Review, 85, 247-328. BLAIR, M. M. & STOUT, L. A. 2001. Trustworthiness, and the Behavioral Foundations of Corporate Law. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 149, 1735-1810. DAVIS, J. H., SCHOORMAN, F. D. & DONALDSON, L. 1997. Toward a Stewardship Theory of Management. Academy of Management Review, 22, 20-47. FREY, B. S. 1997. Markt und Motivation: Wie Preise die (Arbeits-)Moral verdrängen, München, Vahlen. GEORGELLIS, Y., IOSSA, E. & TABVUMA, V. 2010. Crowding Out Intrinsic Motivation in the Public Sector. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 1-21. KORETZ, D. 2008. Test-Based Educational Accountability. Research Evidence and Implications. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 54, 777-790. OSTROM, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, New York, Cambridge University Press. STAZYK, E. C. 2009. Crowding-out intrinsic motivation? The role of performance-related pay. 10th Public Management Research Conference. Columbus, Ohio. VANDENABEELE, W. 2009. Management interventions as conditions for motivation crowding of motivation in the European comission: a mediational analysis of basic needs satisfaction. EGPA conference, SG III. Malta.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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