28 SES 04, The Post-Comprehensive School and the Transformation of the Welfare State
Parallel Paper Session
The aim of this contribution is not to make the point about the difficulties faced by the comprehensive school but to try to elaborate a common matrix in order to think the way education policies in different European countries get progressively out the comprehensive school system. We will analyze two extreme cases, England and France. In England, after a time of a violent denunciation, the change of course has been clearly claimed and theorized through a neo-liberal ideology or through the Third Way’s technocracy (Ball, 2008). In France, the crisis of the “college unique” is very well known but it would be politically incorrect to question its principles (Derouet, 2003). Reformers do not propose a rupture but some shifts and reformulations. This comparative perspective requires a reflection on the links between science and politics. While the schooling of 11-15 years old was the focus of studies during 1960-70s, this issue was progressively abandoned through the 1980s and research interests moved towards other topics: local governance, accountability, professional identities, higher education, etc. At the political level, the end of the XXth century was characterized by the emergence of other definitions of common good: performance, effectiveness, competition, recognition of cultural and ethnic differences, quality of provision, etc. (Gewirtz, 2002, Gewirtz, Cribb, 2008) How can we explain this parallel evolution ? A lack of interest in education as a public problem within the society ? The effect of public ordering on educational research ? The issue can be questioned through political sociology in order to follow the parallel reformulation of justice and the State (Boltanski, Thévenot, 2006). European recommendations an directives shift the hopes of the previous period from democratization of compulsory schooling to Lifelong Learning. The ideal of equality was linked to the project of the Welfare State. Now, the Post-Welfare State promotes a diversification of principles of justice through different conceptions: Third Way, Evaluative State, Active Welfare State, Managerial State (Clarke et alii, 2000). This new formulations need to be investigated through empirical studies.
Ball S., 2008, The Education Debate, Bristol, Polity Press. Boltanski, L., Thévenot, L. 2006, On Justification. The Economies of Worth, Princeton, Princeton University Press. John Clarke, Sharon Gewirtz, Eugene McLaughlin, 2000, New managerialism, new welfare? London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif: Open University in association with SAGE Publications Derouet J.-L. (dir.), 2003, Le collège unique en questions, Paris, PUF. Derouet J;-L., 2009, ‘Rethinking Justice in Education and Training’, in Researching Violence, Democracy and the Rights of People, ed. John Schostak and Jill Schostak, London: Routledge), 25–40. Derouet J.-L. Derouet-Besson M.-C., eds., 2009, Repenser la justice dans le domaine de l’éducation et de la formation, Berne: Peter Lang.. Derouet J.- L., Normand R., 2011, ‘The hesitation of French policy makers in identifying a Third Way in Education’ Journal of Educational Administration and History 43(2), 141-163. Derouet J.-L., Normand R., 2009, ‘Devolution, Partial Decentralization of Education in France and Improvement in the Running of Schools’, in Centralization and School Empowerment from Rhetoric to Practice, ed. Adam Nir, Jerusalem: Nova Publishers, 31–44. Derouet J-L., Normand R., 2008, ‘French Universities at a Crossroads between Crisis and Radical Reform. Towards a New Academic Regime?’, European Education 40, no. 1 (2008): 20–34. Gewirtz S., 2002, The managerial school : post-welfarism and social justice in education London ; New York: Routledge Gewirtz, S., Cribb A., 2008, 'Identity, diversity and equality in education: mapping the normative terrain’, in The Multicultural Question And Education In Europe' European Educational Research Journal, 7 (1)
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