20 SES 13 JS B, Issues of Inclusion in Mathematics Education II
Joint Session with NW 24
In order to understand the development as well as the effects of Mathematics Anxiety (MA) we need reliable and valid scales for measuring MA. One of the most frequently used instruments is the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS; Richardson & Suinn, 1972). Many studies support its validity and reliability (see Baloglu, 2010) but as Alexander and Martray (1989) have pointed out, the underlying assumption of MA as a unidimensional trait might be wrong. Several studies suggest a multidimensional structure of MA (e.g., Bessant, 1995; Ferguson, 1986; Kazelskis, 1998; Plake & Parker, 1982; Resnick et al., 1982). Suinn and Winston (2003) identified two factors with a 30-item-version of the MARS: mathematic test anxiety and numerical anxiety. Others suggest three or even five dimensions (e.g., Baloglu, 2010). Prominent questionnaires, many of them adapted or shortened versions of the MARS, are, for example, The Mathematics Anxiety Scale: MAS (Betz, 1978) and The Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: AMAS (Hopko et al., 2003). As a common finding, these instruments identify two components of mathematics anxiety: having more general negative affective reactions to math (in school and/or daily life) and worrying about doing well in math, especially when being tested. However, even such a distinction might be too narrow: The broad distinction between school- and out-of-school-contexts does not consider the variety of situations of working on mathematical tasks in schools (e.g., answering spontaneously or after preparation time). Furthermore these instruments do not consider that different tasks from various areas of math (e.g., geometry and arithmetic) demanding various skills and, presumingly, evoke different levels of anxiousness. Sparfeldt et al. (2005) make a distinction of different subjects in school (e.g., math and physics) in order to investigate anxiety among secondary students. Other research showed differences between statistics anxiety and mathematics anxiety (e.g., Baloglu, 2004).
Baloglu, M. (2004). Statistics anxiety and mathematics anxiety: Some interesting differences I. Educational Research Quarterly, 27(3), 38–47. Baloglu, M. (2010). An investigation of the validity and reliability of the adapted mathematics anxiety rating scale-short version (MARS-SV) among Turkish students. European Journal of Psychology Education, 25, 507–518 Bessant, K. C. (1995). Factors associated with types of mathematics anxiety in college students. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 26(4), 327–345. Betz, N. E. (1978). Prevalence, distribution, and correlates of math anxiety in college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 25(5), 441–448. Ferguson, R. (1986). Abstraction anxiety: A factor of mathematics anxiety. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 17, 145–150. Hopko, D., Mahadevan, R., Bare, R. & Hunt, M. (2003). The Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS). Construction, validity, and reliability. Assessment, 10, 178–182. Kazelskis, R. (1998). Some dimensions of mathematics anxiety: A factor analysis across instruments. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 58, 623–633. Plake, B. S, & Parker, C. S. (1982). The development and validation of a revised version of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 42, 551–557. Resnick, J. H., Viehe, J., & Segal, S. (1982). Is math anxiety a local´phenomenon? A study of prevalence and dimensionality. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29, 39–47. Richardson, F. C. & Suinn, R. M. (1972). The Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 19, 551–554. Sparfeldt, J. R.; Schilling, S. R.; Rost, D. H.; Stelzl, I. & Peipert, D. (2005). Leistungsängstlichkeit: Facetten, Fächer, Fachfacetten? Zur Trennbarkeit nach Angstfacette und Inhaltsbereich. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 19(4), 225–236. Suinn, R. M., & Winston, E. H. (2003). The Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale, a brief version: Psychometric data. Psychological Reports, 92, 167–173.
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