08 SES 08, Health Behaviours and its Determinants
There is widespread international concern about the effects of sleep deprivation and sleep disturbance among adolescents. Studies have found that Japanese and Korean adolescents are among the most severely sleep deprived teenagers in the world. Whilst evidence suggests that western adolescents are less sleep deprived than their Far Eastern counterparts, studies point to some 25.7% of western European students, aged 15 to 18, experiencing sleep problems (Ohayon et al, 2000). A recent study of Hong Kong adolescents found the prevalence of sleep disturbance among a sample of 12-19 year olds (n=1629) to be 19.1% (Chung et al, 2008).
The negative impact of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance has been demonstrated in a number of studies which have measured the effects on specific cognitive functions, such as executive functions essential for problem solving and creative thinking (Killgore et al, 2008) and educational performance (Dewald et al, 2010). Other studies have found that sleep deprivation affects social-emotional functioning, such as aggression and bullying (O’Brien et al, 2011) the exercise of emotional intelligence (Killgore, et al, 2008), the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide (Fitzgerald et al, 2011; Liu & Buysse, 2006) and delinquency (Clinkinbeard, 2011).
Whilst some attention has been given to the educational impact of sleep deprivation of student performance in schools, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of the possible effects of sleep deprivation of teachers’ functioning in the school and classroom, and the possible effects of this interacting with student sleep deprivation. This topic becomes significant when we consider concerns concerning teachers’ heavy workload and the increasing pressure from government educational reforms which are focused on improving the competiveness of national work forces. These concerns are also reflected in the perceptions of newly qualified teachers (Lam & Yan, 2011). In the UK in particular teaching is widely regarded as ‘one of the most stressful occupations in the country’ (Hill, 2008), and with sleep disturbance being cited consistently as one of the main accompaniments to teacher stress (Wilson, 2002). In this study particular attention is given to social and educational engagement as well as emotional functioning. The perceived causes of both negative and positive sleep habits are also explored. The study also provides insight into the possible effects of interactions between teacher and student functioning.
This study contrasts and compares findings from England and Hong Kong. Whilst these two countries are representative of modern advanced hi-tech economies, they contrast with one another along certain socio-cultural dimensions. These contrasts are reflected in attitudes to work and leisure and the relative value placed on effort and achievement. The intention has been to explore, compare and contrast the relationships between sleep deprivation and educational engagement in the two national samples with a view to exposing possible cultural influences and their implications for theory and intervention.
Objectives of the Study
- To explore the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and duration on assessed academic performance and social-emotional and behavioural status of secondary school students in Hong Kong and England.
- To explore Hong Kong based and England based teachers’ perceptions of the extent and impact of student sleepiness in relation to educational and social engagement.
- To explore Hong Kong based and England based teachers’ experience of sleep quality and duration and the impact of these on their professional and personal functioning.
- To explore all participants’ experience of and perceptions of habits and practices which impact on their sleep quality.
Chung, C, & Cheung, M. (2008) Sleep-Wake Patterns and Sleep Disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents, Sleep, 1; 31(2): 185–194 Clinkinbeard, S. Simi, P, Evans, M & Anderson, A (2011) Sleep and Delinquency: Does the Amount of Sleep Matter? J Youth Adolescence, http://www.unomaha.edu/enotes/2010/img/sleep.pdf Dewald, J. Meijer, A . Oort, J. Kerkhof, G. Bogels, S. (2010) The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review, Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14, 179-189 Fitzgerald C, Messias E, & Buysse D (2011) Teen sleep and suicidality: results from the youth risk behavior surveys of 2007 and 2009, Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 157(4):351-6. Goodman R (1997) "The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Research Note." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581-586. Hill, A (2008) Depressed, stressed: teachers in crisis, The Observer, 31/8, www.guardian.co.uk/education/2008/aug/31/teaching.teacherworkload Hong Kong Professional Teachers’ Union (2011) SBA review needed, PTU News, 221(592) Killgore, W., Kahn-Greene, E., Lipizzi, E., Newman, R., Kamimori, G., & Balkin, T (2008) Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills, Sleep Medicine, 9(5), 517-526 Lam, B & Yan, H (2011) Beginning teachers’ job satisfaction: the impact of school-based Factors, Teacher Development, 15(3), 333–348 Liu, X. & Buysse, D (2006) Sleep and youth suicidal behaviour: a neglected field, Current Opinion in Psychiatry: (19)3, 288-293 O’Brien, L., Lucas, N., Felt, B., Hoban, T., Ruzicka, D., Jordan, R., Guire, K., Chervin, R (2011) Aggressive behavior, bullying, snoring, and sleepiness in schoolchildren, Sleep Medicine, 12 (7), 652-658 Ohayon, M., & Shapiro, C (2000) Sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in the general population, Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41( 6), 469-478 Wilson, V (2002) Feeling the Strain: an overview of the literature on teachers’ stress, Edinburgh: Scottish Council for Research in Education
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