ERG SES D 10, Teachers and Education
The Czech education system as in many European particularly post-socialist countries enable students tracking to selective and non-selective classes according to their abilities and school assessment (Gamoran, 2010). Distribution of students in the Czech republic is devided into tracking and ability grouping. Tracking means teaching groups of homogeneous students with similar students results, while ability grouping instructing heterogeneous groups of students. Students placed in lower tracks (non-selective classes) ultimately achieve less than students of similar aptitude who are placed in academic programs or untracked classes. Low track often consists of students with worse family backgrounds and consequently with worse results in school (Oakes, 2008). Researchers observe increasing number of students with low skills and low knowledge, which suggests unequal conditions in education for certain students. Teacher interaction with students in lower-tracks classes is less motivating and less supportive and also less demanding on higher-order reasoning and responses. For understanding uneven educational system, we shall examine what teachers are in distinct classes and according to what criteria they are allocated by principals to classes. Researches indicate teachers unequal access to high and low track. More experienced teachers are assigned to high track with faster pace and better goals (Darling-Hammond, 1997). The study focuses on principals' approach to assigning teachers to classes based on their quality it also clarifies how teachers perceive their assignment. Tracking in the Czech education system begins much earlier compared with the other countries in Europe, for example Netherlands, Belgium, Germany (Walterová, 2009).
Betts, J. R., & Shkolnik, J. L. (2000). The effects of ability grouping on student achievement and resource allocation in secondary schools. Economics of Education Review, 19(1), p. 1-15. Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). The Right To Learn. (p. 135, 267). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Gamoran, A. (2010). “Tracking and Inequality: New Directions for Research and Practice.” (p. 213-228). in M. Apple, S. J. Ball, and L. A. Gandin (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of the Sociology of Education. London: Routledge. Greger, D., Chvál M., Walterová E., & Černý K. (2009) Názory českých rodičů na časné rozdělování žáků,“ in Orbis Scholae, 3 (3), p. 51-78. Oakes, J. (2008). Keeping Track: Structuring Equality and Inequality. Era of Accountability. 110(3). p. 700 – 712. OECD (2010) “PISA 2009 Results: Overcoming Social Background – Equity in Learning Opportunities and Outcomes (Volume II).” OECD (2013) „PISA 2012 Results: Excellence Through Equity: Giving Every Student the Chance to Succeed (Volume II).“ Švaříček, R., Šeďová, K. (2007). Kvalitativní výzkum v pedagogických vědách. (p. 160) Praha: Portál. Walterová, E. (1990). Vzdělávací trendy a pedagogický výzkum v Nizozemsku. (p. 38) Praha: Ústav informací.
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