23 SES 12 C, Education Policies and Development
A problem exists regarding optimal ways for states to structure the implementation and evaluation of impact of education policy to meet the public's expectations, and trust in education systems, and the space of suspension between these expectations and the delivery of trust (Möllering, 2001). Here trust is an alternative construct to a rational reductionist approach to knowledge and systems management based on prediction (Lewis and Weigert, 1985). The aim of this paper is to identify the structures for education policy implementation, and evaluation of impact in Russia, England and European Union (EU). We then compare them to identify common characteristics that underpin delivering on the public's expectations for, and trust in, achieving full economic and societal participation. We will develop our conceptual framework iteratively as we complete the comparative structural analysis.
Educational policy implementation in Russia is developed, regulated and governed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. On the one hand, the process of its development has become more democratic compared to the Soviet period of the Russian education (Pogosian 2012), and public participation has become evident and possible. On the other hand, the policy enactment processes have an essential impact on the participatory decision making at school level (Pogosian 2014). At school level, educational policy implementation is supervised, monitored, and audited, and evaluated by local, regional and federal bodies that conduct on a regular basis scheduled and unscheduled inspections. The main controlling body of policy implementation is the Federal Supervision Service in the Sphere of Education and Science.
Education policy implementation structures in England have increasingly moved from a regional Local Authority structure to Chains of schools called Academies, and Multi- Academy Trusts (MATs). MATs have members who act as shareholders, Trustees, and Governing Bodies (National College for Teaching and Leadership (NCTL), 2014) which follows a public corporation model (Mitchell, 2012). Academies, schools and cooperative schools have structures of self-evaluation and MAT Governance Systems need to ensure evaluation structures are in place (NCTL, 2014). Summary Evaluations are presented to: 'The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills (Ofsted) who regulate and inspect to achieve excellence in the care of children and young people' (Ofsted, 2012, p.2). Judgements and feedback from Ofsted feed into structures of knowledge management, with an aim to build capacity across systems.
European Union education policy implementation and impact evaluation is the responsibility of member states (European Commission, 2015). European Union structures play a supporting role to enhance the quality of education by encouraging relationships or associations of cooperation between member states (European Commission, 2015). The European Commission report to the European Parliament on policy implementation regarding promoting mobility of citizens, developing joint study programmes such as Tempus and Bologna, and developing networks for knowledge exchange and learning languages with a commitment to life-long learning (European Commission, 2012). The Directorate General for Education and Culture implement policy through dialogue with member states to ensure initiatives, often attached to funding, are implemented across Europe. Evaluations are commissioned into education and training policies that are a key target to enabling Europe to become a sustainable and inclusive economy by 2020 (The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2011).
The findings will be read them through Möllering’s (2001) conceptual framework of expectations, trust, and the space of suspense between expectations and trust where the publics’ relations or associations hall marked by participation or exclusion are revealed. Common characteristics will be identified and structures that enhance impact illuminated.
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