ERG SES C 13, Culture and Education
In Western Europe, due to the recent refugee crisis, immigration from the Middle East has risen substantially in the past year. In recognition of these socio-political shifts, the education system needs to respond in a way that effectively supports youth coming from these regions and addresses the cultural transformation for youth born in the receiving countries. In the past, immigrant origin students were often funneled into lower vocational tracks at a substantially higher rate than students from the dominant groups (Brinbaum, Monguérou, & Primon, 2010; Glock & Krolak-Schwerdt, 2013; Baysu & Phalet, 2012). This issue, along with other educational inequities, represented a larger systemic failure of European education systems, as well as those of other developed nations, to truly provide equitable educational opportunities for these youth who grow up within systems of oppression in receiving countries where they were treated as perpetual foreigners.
In relation to discrimination, studies have found that Turkish youth are typically more marginalized than other immigrant origin groups in Western Europe (Moldenhawer, 1999). In addition, and likely related, Turkish origin students in particular, compared to other immigrant populations in Europe, are overrepresented in the lowest academic tracks, usually vocational schools (Baysu & Phalet, 2012; Glock and Krolak-Schwerdt, 2013). Higher dropout rates have been cited with this group, compared to other immigrant groups, (Baysu & Phalet, 2012), as well as higher levels of unemployment (Moldehawer, 1999). In France, Turkish origin students have substantially lower percentages in passing the baccalauréat, an academic qualification taken at the end of secondary schooling (lycée): Only 32.9% of Turkish origin youth receive the degree, compared to 50.8% of Maghrebi origin youth (the second lowest percentage), and 64.2% of non-immigrant origin students (Maurin, 2012). In understanding these discrepancies, it is essential to examine the role of societal discrimination within the educational system. This particular factor is one that is essential to examine at this moment in time, in consideration of the current refugee crisis in Europe, as well as the attacks in Paris on November 13, 2015. After the attacks in New York City on September 11, 2001, Islamophobia increased drastically throughout the Western world (Taylor, 2009). A similar effect has already been evident after the attacks in Paris, which demands a response on the part of the educational systems in Europe to combat this unjust marginalization.
This review of the research seeks to analyze the role of the education system in relation to Turkish immigrant origin youth, as documented within refereed research. The review was undertaken with the goal of reviewing pedagogical approaches that have been effective or ineffective with these youth in order to develop recommendations for educators that teach Middle Eastern origin youth. The central question that this review seeks to answer is: What does educational research say about the role of the education system in the growing disenfranchisement of Turkish youth? Within this larger question, there will be a focus of how different educational systems and programs have promoted or suppressed the cultures of Turkish origin youth, understanding culture as political in nature.
Baysu, G., & Phalet, K. (2012). Staying on or dropping out? The role of intergroup friendship and perceived teacher support in minority and nonminority school careers. Teachers College Record, 114(5), 25. Brinbaum, Y., Monguérou, L., & Primon, J.L. (2010). Educational trajectories and experiences of young descendants of immigrants in France. In C. Beauchemin, C. Hamel, & P. Simon (Eds.), Documents de travail 168, Trajectories and origins: Survey on population diversity in France (pp. 45-52). Paris: INED/INSEE. Crijnen, A. A. M., Bengi-Arslan, L., & Verhulst, F. C. (2000). Teacher-reported problem behaviour in Turkish immigrant and Dutch children: A cross-cultural comparison. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102(6), 439–444. Crul, M. (2002). Success breeds success: Moroccan and Turkish student mentors in the Netherlands. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 24, 275-287. Glock, S., & Krolak-Schwerdt, S. (2013). Does nationality matter? The impact of stereotypical expectations on student teachers’ judgments. Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 16(1), 111–127. Kurban, F., & Tobin, J. (2009). “They don’t like us”: Reflections of Turkish children in a German preschool. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 10(1), 24–34. Maurin, L. (2012). Les enfants d’immigrés réussissent mieux à l’école que les autres! Diversité: ville, école, integration, 168, 22-24. Moldenhawer, B. (1999). Turkish and Kurdish speaking teachers in the Danish folkeskole: The ambiguous concept of equality. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 43(4), 349–369. Oyserman, D., Harrison, K., & Bybee, D. (2001). Can racial identity be promotive of academic efficacy? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25(4), 379-385. Stevens, G. W. J. M., Pels, T., Bengi-Arslan, L., Verhulst, F. C., Vollebergh, W. A. M., & Crijnen, A. A. M. (2003). Parent, teacher and self-reported problem behavior in the Netherlands: Comparing Moroccan immigrant with Dutch and with Turkish immigrant children and adolescents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(10), 576–585. Taylor, S. K. (2009). Right pedagogy/wrong language and caring in times of fear? Issues in the schooling of ethnic Kurdish children in Denmark. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12(3), 291–307. Thomauske, N. (2011). The relevance of multilingualism for teachers and immigrant parents in early childhood education and care in Germany and France. Intercultural education, 22(4), 327-336. Zwirs, B., Burger, H., Schulpen, T., Vermulst, A. A., HiraSing, R. A., & Buitelaar, J. (2011). Teacher ratings of children’s behavior problems and functional impairment across gender and ethnicity: Construct equivalence of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(3), 466–481.
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.